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i WASTEWATER ENGINEERING 
AND MANAGEMENT PLAN 

FOR 

STON HARBOR • EASTERN MASSACHUSETTS METROPOLITAN AREA 
[J EMMA STUDY 

TECHNICAL DATA VOL. 9 

MDC INTERCEPTOR AND PUMPING 

STATION ANALYSIS AND IMPROVEMENTS 





OCTOBER 1975 



INDEX TO EMMA STUDY REPORTS 



BROCHURE 



SUMMARY REPORT 



MAIN REPORT 



TECHNICAL DATA VOLUMES 



1 
2 
3 

3A 
3B 
4 

5 
6 

7 
8 

8A 
9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

13A 

13B 

13C 

13D 

14 

15 
16 



PLANNING CRITERIA 

ENGINEERING CRITERIA 

INDUSTRIAL PROCESS WASTEWATER ANALYSIS AND 

REGULATION 
STUDY OF CERTAIN INDUSTRIAL WASTES 
STUDY OF WASTES FROM LARGE INDUSTRIES 
WATER-ORIENTED WASTEWATER UTILIZATION CONCEPTS 
LAND-ORIENTED WASTEWATER UTILIZATION CONCEPTS 
FORMULATION OF WASTEWATER UTILIZATION PLAN 
COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOW REGULATION 
URBAN STORMWATER MANAGEMENT 
APPENDIX TO URBAN STORMWATER MANAGEMENT 
MDC INTERCEPTOR AND PUMPING STATION ANALYSIS AND 

IMPROVEMENTS 
DEER ISLAND WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT ANALYSIS 

AND IMPROVEMENTS 
NUT ISLAND WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT ANALYSIS Al 

IMPROVEMENTS 
FINANCING AND MANAGEMENT 
IMPACT ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION 
BIOLOGICAL IMPACT ANALYSIS 
SOCIO-ECONOMIC IMPACT ANALYSIS 
HYGIENIC IMPACT ANALYSIS 

VISUAL, CULTURAL AND DESIGN IMPACT ANALYSIS 
PUBLIC INVOLVEMENT 

RECOMMENDED PLAN AND IMPLEMENTATION PROGRAM 
AGENCY REVIEWS 



COVER PHOTOGRAPH 



The cover photograph on this Technical Data Volume 
depicts the front of the Alewife Brook Pumping Station. 
This photograph was taken in the late l800 f s. 



WASTEWATER ENGINEERING 
AND MANAGEMENT PLAN 
FOR 
BOSTON HARBOR EASTERN MASSACHUSETTS METROPOLITAN AREA 

EMMA STUDY 



TECHNICAL DATA VOL. 9 

MDC INTERCEPTOR AND PUMPING STATIONS 
ANALYSIS AND IMPROVEMENTS 

FOR THE 

METROPOLITAN DISTRICT COMMISSION 

COMMONWEALTH OF MASSACHUSETTS 



BY 



METCALF & EDDY, INC. 



OCTOBER 1975 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Page 
LIST OF TABLES iii 

LIST OF FIGURES v 

REPORT 

CHAPTER 1 - INTRODUCTION 1-1 

Purpose 1-1 

Scope 1-1 

Report Structure 1-1 

CHAPTER 2 - EXISTING SYSTEM 2-1 

General 2-1 

North Metropolitan Sewerage System 2-1 

South Metropolitan Sewerage System 2-16 

CHAPTER 3 - EVALUATION PROCEDURE 3-1 

General 3-1 

Interceptors 3-1 

Pumping Stations and Headworks 3-2 

CHAPTER 4 - SEWER RELIEF REQUIREMENTS UNDER 

SERVICE AREA CONCEPTS STUDIED 4-1 

General 4-1 

Concept 1 4-1 

Concept 2 4-1 

Concept 3 4-8 

Concept 4 4-8 

Estimated Costs and Priorities 4-20 

CHAPTER 5 - INTERCEPTOR RELIEF REQUIREMENTS 

UNDER THE RECOMMENDED PLAN 5-1 

General 5-1 

Relief Requirements 5-1 

CHAPTER 6 - V/ASTEWATER PUMPING STATION 

ANALYSIS AND IMPROVEMENTS 6-1 

General 6-1 

Evaluation Procedure 6-2 



TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) 



Capacity Requirements 

Summary of Improvements Needed 

Alewife Brook Pumping Station 

Braintree-Weymouth Pumping Station 

Charlestown Pumping Station 

East Boston Steam Pumping Station 

East Boston Electric Pumping Station 

Hingham Pumping Station 

Houghs Neck Pumping Station 

Quincy Pumping Station 

Reading Pumping Station 

Squantum Pumping Station 

Costs of Recommended Improvements 



Page 

6-4 

6-4 

6-9 

6-9 

6-12' 

6-15 

6-17 

6-18 

6-19 

6-19 

6-21 

6-24 

6-25 



CHAPTER 7 - HEADWORKS ANALYSIS AND IMPROVEMENTS 7-1 



General 

Description of Facilities 

Chelsea. Creek Headworks 

Columbus Park Headworks 

Ward Street Headworks 

Winthrop Terminal Facility 

Operating Data 

Rehabilitation Needs 

Capacity Requirements 

Costs of Recommended Improvements 



APPENDIXES 
APPENDIX A 
APPENDIX B 
APPENDIX C 

APPENDIX D 

APPENDIX E 

APPENDIX F 
APPENDIX G 



INTERCEPTOR DATA 

INTERCEPTOR MODELING PACKAGES 

INTERCEPTOR ANALYSIS PROGRAM 
INSTRUCTIONS 

INTERCEPTOR MODELING EXAMPLE 
AND RESULTS 

PUMPING STATION AND HEADWORKS 
INVENTORY ABBREVIATIONS 

PUMPING STATION INVENTORY 

HEADWORKS INVENTORY 



7-1 
7-1 
7-2 
7-2 
7-3 
7-3 
7-4 
7-6 
7-6 
7-10 



A-l 
B-l 

C-l 

D-l 

E-l 
F-l 
G-l 



ii 



LIST OF TABLES 



Table Page 

2-1 Existing North Metropolitan Sewerage 

System (Deer Island) Service Area 2-3 

2-2 Description of North Metropolitan 

Sewerage System 2-4 

2-3 Existing South Metropolitan Sewerage 

System (Nut Island) Service Area 2-17 

2-4 Description of South Metropolitan 

Sewerage System 2-18 

4-1 MDC Interceptor Relief Requirements 

Under Concept 1 4-2 

4-2 MDC Interceptor Relief Requirements 

Under Concept 2 4-9 

4-3 MDC Interceptor Relief Requirements 

Under Concept 3 4-13 

4-4 MDC Interceptor Relief Requirements 

Under Concept 4 4-21 

4-5 Estimated Cost of Interceptor Relief 

Requirements Under Concepts Studied 4-25 

4-6 Estimated Costs of Interceptor Improve- 
ments and Extension Sewers 4-27 

4-7 MDC Interceptors Requiring High-Priority 

Relief and Associated Costs 4-28 

5-1 Relief Requirements Under the Recommended 

Plan 5-2 

5-2 Design Flows for MDC Interceptors 

Requiring Relief 5-7 

5-3 Estimated Cost of Interceptor Improve- 
ments Required Under the Recommended Plan 5-13 

5-4 Interceptor Requirements for New 

Communities Under the Recommended Plan 5-14 

6-1 Future Capacity Requirements for Dry 

V/eather Flows - 2000 6-5 

6-2 Immediate Rehabilitation Needs of MDC 

Pumping Stations 6-6 

iii 



LIST OF TABLES (Continued) 



Table Page 

6-3 Estimated Cost for Rehabilitation or 

Replacement of MDC Pumping Stations 6-25 

7-1 Headworks Pretreatment Flow Data 7-5 

7-2 Future Capacity Requirements for Keadworks 
Under Peak Dry Weather Flows - For the 
Year 2000 7-8 



LIST OF APPENDIX TABLES 

A-l MDC Interceptors North System A-2 

A-2 MDC Interceptors South System A-35 

A-3 Abbreviations Used in Tables A-l and A-2 A-52 

B-l Index of Interceptor Modeling Packages B-l 

C-l Input Data Description C-4 

D-l Interceptor Data Used for Modeling 

Example D-2 

D-2 Input Data for Interceptor Modeling 

Example D-3 

D-3 Output from Interceptor Modeling 

Example D-4 



iv 



LIST OF FIGURES 



Figure 



2-1 



Areas Served by the Existing Metropolitan 
Interceptor Systems and the Deer and Nut 
Island Wastewater Treatment Plants 



Page 



2-2 



2-2 Existing MDC Sewerage System 



4-1 Interceptor Relief Requirements Under 
Service Area Concepts Studied 

5-1 Interceptor Relief Requirements Under 
The Recommended Plan 

6-1 MDC Pumping Station Service Areas 



Bound in 
back 

Bound in 
back 

Bound in 
back 

Bound in 
back 



6-2 Function of MDC East Boston Pumping 
Stations 



6-3 



REPORT 



CHAPTER 1 
INTRODUCTION 



Purpose 

The purpose of this technical data volume is to 
present the inventory and evaluation of the MDC interceptors, 
pumping stations and headworks in terms of their adequacy to 
meet projected needs under various concepts and the 
recommended plan, and to recommend the general upgrading 
required at the pumping stations and headworks. 

Scope 

This volume presents the details of the MDC inter- 
ceptor system, including an updated interceptor map. 
Preliminary relief sizes and costs of sewers needed under 
each concept and the recommended plan are presented. For 
pumping stations and headworks the findings from inspections 
of each are presented along with preliminary estimates 
needed for their upgrading to up-to-date standards. 

The interceptor system was evaluated through computer 
modeling of the MDC sewers for purposes of determining their 
hydraulic adequacy to transport projected flows. This 
included description of the pipe system in detail along with 
identification of areas tributary to each pipe through the 
evaluation of local sewer systems. 

In the case of pumping stations and headworks, each 
major piece of equipment was inventoried. Supervisory and 
operating personnel were consulted as an aid in ascertaining 
the work required to rehabilitate each facility. An analysis 
was then made to determine the modifications required to 
ensure each facility would meet future capacity requirements 
by accepted engineering standards. 

Report Structure 

As shown on the inside cover, the study results are 
presented In a series of volumes. The criteria used in 
quantifying the various improvements needed are presented 
in Technical Data Vol. 1 and 2. The description of the 
service area configurations used in each concept investigated 
is presented in Technical Data Vol. *l and 5. The recommended 
plan and program for its implementation is presented in 
Technical Data Vol. 15. 



1-1 



This report is Technical Data Vol. 9, MDC Inter- 
ceptor and Pumping Station Analysis and Improvements , and 
covers the evaluation of the adequacy and determination of 
the needed improvements for the sewers and pumping stations 
of the MDC. First, this volume describes the existing 
system; then, interceptor relief requirements are shown and 
finally, an evaluation of the upgrading requirements for 
pumping stations and headworks is presented. 

Appendixes to this report cover details of the inter- 
ceptors, pumping stations and headworks facilities. Due to 
the nature and length of the pumping station and headworks 
inventories, they have not been included in all copies of 
the report. However, for those interested in these details, 
a copy of these inventories is available for review at the 
Metropolitan District Commission. 



1-2 



CHAPTER 2 
EXISTING SYSTEM 



General 

The MDC sewerage system, called the Metropolitan 
Sewerage District (MSD), includes treatment plants in Boston 
Harbor at Deer Island and Nut Island serving respectively 
the North Metropolitan and South Metropolitan sewerage 
systems. The MSD includes areas shown on Figure 2-1. Four 
headworks, 12 pumping stations and interceptors totalling 
225 miles presently serve 42 communities including the 
City of Boston. The MSD has 43 member communities, all of 
which contribute flow except for Holbrook. Also, the MSD 
presently operates combined sewer overflow control facilities 
in Cambridge and Somerville. These, however, are discussed 
in Technical Data Vol. 7, Combined Sewer Overflow Regulation . 

The total area and population served by the MSD is 
presently 132,800 acres and 1,970,300, respectively. 

Figure 2-2 (bound in back) shows the approximate 
location, size and extent of the existing MDC interceptor 
system. Shown are the overall size of the various reaches, 
selected invert elevations (MDC Datum) and the MDC Section 
Number under which detailed construction records are 
filed. Details of each pipe are listed in Appendix A. 

North Metropolitan Sewerage System 

About 68,200 acres and about 1,340,200 persons plus 
nondomestic contributions are served by the Deer Island 
Treatment Plant. This includes 22 communities plus parts 
of Boston, Brookline, Milton and Newton. Table 2-1 
summarizes the communities, population and areas served by 
this system. 

A description of the function of various interceptor 
facilities of this system is presented in Table 2-2. The 
percentages of communities discharging to the various 
interceptors shown is on the basis of percent of total 
area sewered. 

Seven of the 12 total MDC pumping stations are in 
the North Metropolitan System. These are the Alewife 
Brook, Charlestown, East Boston Electric, East Boston 
Steam and Reading. The Old Deer Island and Winthrop 



2-1 




LEGEND 



NORTH METROPOLITAN SYSTEM 
SOUTH METROPOLITAN SYSTEM 



VEMBER OF METROPOLITAN SEWERAGE DISTRICT 
BUT NOT CONTRIBUTING AT THIS TIME 



FIG. 2-1 AREAS SERVED BY THE EXISTING METROPOLITAN INTERCEPTOR 
SYSTEMS AND THE DEER AND NUT ISLAND WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS 



TABLE 2-1. EXISTING NORTH METROPOLITAN SEWERAGE SYSTEM 
(DEER ISLAND) SERVICE AREA 



Community 



Number 



Name 



Sewered 
population 



Sewered 
acres 



2 Arlington 

5 Bedford 

7 Belmont 

15 Brcokline (part) 

17 Burlington 

18 Cambridge 
22 Chelsea 
30 Everett 
43 Lexington 
48 Maiden 

55 Medford 

57 Melrose 

61 Milton (part) 

66 Newton (part) 

77 Reading 

78 Revere 

86 Somerville 

88 Stoneham 

95 Wakefield 

97 Waltham 

98 Watertown 

107 Wilmington 

108 Winchester 

109 Winthrop 

110 Woburn 

112 Boston Proper - 

113 Brighton 

114 Charlestown - 

115 Dorchester 

117 East Boston - 

118 FNWY-JMACA - 
12 3 Roxbury 

124 South Boston - 

Total 



53. 


600 


6 


100 


24 


,400 


30 


,700 


10 


,800 


100 


,400 


30 


,600 


42 


,500 


24 


,600 


56. 


,100 


63 


,800 


33 


,200 


4 


,900 


41 


,100 


13 


,500 


40 


,600 


88 


,700 


19 


,700 


22 


,400 


46 


,200 


39 


,300 




200 


22 


,300 


20 


,300 


27 


,700 


67 


,100 


63 


,600 


15 


,400 


112 


,100 


38 


,800 


38 


,300 


98 


,200 


43 


,100 



3 


000 


1 


400 


2. 


000 




860 


3 


900 


3 


400 


1 


,000 


1 


,300 


4 


,400 


2 


600 


2 


,750 


2 


,000 




230 


4 


,120 


2 


,100 


1 


,800 


2 


,300 


1 


,900 


2 


,250 


4 


,300 


2 


,100 




50 


2 


,550 




800 


2 


,100 


1 


,480 


1 


,990 




480 


2 


,900 


1 


,120 


1 


,290 


2 


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1 


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1,340,200 



68,230 



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2-15 



pumping stations are in existence but are no longer in 
active use. The Deer Island Pumping Station is being 
phased out of the system now that flows are being diverted 
directly to the Winthrop Terminal Facility. Flows tributary 
to the Winthrop Pumping Station now enter the MDC North 
Metropolitan Sewer by gravity since most of the flows 
tributary to this sewer have been diverted to the North 
Metropolitan Relief Tunnel. 

All four headworks, namely Chelsea Creek, Columbus 
Park, Ward Street and Winthrop Terminal Facility are also 
part of the North Metropolitan Sewerage System. 

South Metropolitan Sewerage System 

An estimated 64,600 acres are sewered in the area 
tributary to this system serving about 630,200 persons, 
plus nonresidential contributors. 

Wastewater from 16 communities plus parts of Boston, 
Brookline, Milton and Newton flows to the Nut Island Treat- 
ment Plant as shown in Table 2-3. 

The interrelationship and function of the South 
Metropolitan System interceptors is shown in Table 2-4. 

The remaining five pumping stations of the MSD are 
the Braintree-Weymouth, Hingham, Quincy, Houghs Neck and 
Squantum pumping stations. 



2-16 



TABLE 2-3. EXISTING SOUTH METROPOLITAN SEWERAGE SYSTEM 
(NUT ISLAND) SERVICE AREA 



Community 



Number 



Name 



Sewered 
population 



Sewered 
acres 



3 Ashland 

14 Braintree 

16 Brookline (part) 

19 Canton 

26 Dedham 

31 Framingham 

36 Hingham 

37 Holbrook(l) 
62 Milton (part) 

64 Natick 

65 Needham 

67 Newton (part) 

72 Norwood 

75 Quincy 

76 Randolph 
89 Stoughton 
96 Walpole 

100 Wellesley 

105 Westwood 

106 Weymouth 
Boston 

116 Dorchester 

119 PNWY-JMACA 

120 Hyde Park 

121 Mattapan( 2 ) 

122 Roslindale(2) 
125 West Roxbury 

Total 



1 


100 


34 


400 


27. 


500 


8 


900 


23 


800 


50 


600 


3 


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20 


,700 


21 


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25. 


500 


50 


,000 


30 


,500 


88 


,000 


13 


,500 


5 


600 


5 


800 


22 


,700 


4 


,300 


27 


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25 


,700 


10 


,000 


38. 


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37 


,200 


28 


200 


25, 


000 



630,200 



250 

4,400 
2,330 
1,650 
2,700 
7,000 

650 

2,510 
3,800 
3,600 
6,260 
3,200 
5,250 
1,800 
1,000 
1,100 
6,200 

600 
3,050 

410 

490 

2,660 

960 

1,300 

1,450 

64,620 



1. Presently not served by the MDC. 

2. Negligible areas of Mattapan and Roslindale that 
contribute to the Deer Island Treatment Plant are 
considered tributary to the Nut Island Treatment Plant 



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2-21 



CHAPTER 3 
EVALUATION PROCEDURE 



General 

In the past, the procedure in sizing interceptors 
and pumping stations has been to design on the basis of 
peak dry weather flows, plus an allowance for stormwater 
inflow, where combined sewers were tributary to the 
interceptor under design. In the latter case, various 
criteria were used, but generally a factor of three times 
average dry weather flow was employed as the basis for 
design. 

Since this procedure is no longer acceptable to 
achieving water pollution control for combined sewers, 
other means for controlling combined sewer overflows 
have been evaluated apart from intercepting additional 
flows. On this basis, the adequacy of interceptors and 
pumping stations is measured on the basis of peak dry 
weather flow capacity with combined sewer overflows being 
evaluated explicitly for remedial action in Technical Data 
Vol. 7. 

Interceptors 

The hydraulic capacity and relief requirements of 
the interceptors was determined through computer modeling. 

The model carries out hydraulic gradient calcula- 
tions and consists of an Executive Block, two Main Programs 
(one for Subcritical Flows and the other for Supercritical 
Flows in the system), and a number of subprograms for 
computational support for the main programs. Each sub- 
program is written to do some computational functions. As 
for example, there are subprograms to calculate flow 
properties and head losses in conduits, bends, transitions, 
siphons, etc. 

The model identifies each sewer element separately, 
calculates critical slope, normal depth and full flow 
capacity, and the hydraulic and energy gradients under the 
modeled flow condition. A description of the model used 
is presented in Appendix B. 

In preparing the model of the MDC Interceptors, the 
physical properties of each section of the interceptor 
system were collected by going through MDC files and con- 
struction drawings. All information regarding how the 

3-1 



various interceptors are connected was also collected. 
Any modifications to the interceptor system that were made 
after they were built were also included. An updated 
interceptor data base and map was prepared showing all 
present interceptors and the communities that presently 
contribute sewage flows to the system. 

Following completion of the interceptor map, the 
next step was to determine the quantity of average and peak 
sewage flows that each section of the interceptor system 
needs to carry. 

This was done by first identifying how sewage from 
each community flows into the MDC interceptor system. This 
led to the identification of tributary areas for each 
interceptor in the system as shown in Tables 2-2 and 2-4. 
Average and peak flows in each interceptor were then 
calculated based on the areas contributing to that section, 
population served, and major and minor industrial flows 
(see Technical Data Vol. 2, Engineering Criteria ). Once 
flows in each sewer section were estimated, modeling 
started at the downstream terminal point in the inter- 
ceptor. Hydraulic analysis then proceeded in an upstream 
direction. Appendix C presents the program instructions 
for the interceptor analysis while Appendix D presents an 
example of how this interceptor modeling was conducted 
including inputs to the model and results from using the 
model. 

Analysis of the interceptor system was initially 
done using estimated peak present design flows. In this 
analysis, the model output provided capacities for each 
interceptor and pinpointed all sections requiring immediate 
relief. During the modeling of the interceptor system, it 
was noted that many of the interceptor shapes were other 
than circular or prismatic, such as horse-shoe, egg, etc. 
There appeared to be no standard depth to width ratio. 
Accordingly, these sections were converted to equivalent 
circular sections in the model. 

Interceptor adequacy was tested against 1970, 1980, 
2000, 2020 and 2050 design flows. Wherever the 1970 or 
1980 flows showed lack of adequate capacity, need for 
immediate relief was identified and sized on the basis of 
year 2020 design flows. Where such were found to be 
adequate for the year 2000 flows, relief was sized to meet 
year 2050 needs and was indicated as requiring future 
relief. 

Pumping Stations and Headworks 

In this investigation peak dry weather flows 
estimated to occur by the year 2000 were used to ascertain 

3-2 



the capacity required to meet future needs. A design 
period of 20 years was used for pumping stations and 
headwork facilities which if properly designed are easily 
expanded. 

It should be noted that the future capacity require- 
ments are based on projected dry weather flows, and do 
not provide for excessive inflows into the sewerage systems. 
Since inflows do occur, detailed investigations will be 
required to determine if areas of storm inflow can be 
isolated, and inflows effectively reduced. If substantial 
corrections cannot be made, then it will be necessary to 
increase the pumping capacity accordingly. 

Particular effort was made to ascertain those modifi- 
cations that would be required so that each facility would 
conform to sound and accepted engineering standards. 
Attention was given to the age, type and condition of the 
installed equipment in each facility in determining the 
continued use of such equipment to provide for future 
needs . 

In order to achieve this, field inspection of each 
major facility was conducted and an inventory of each major 
piece of equipment was made and is presented in Appendixes F 
and G. 

In all cases, it has been assumed and recommended 
that all pumping stations will be electrified, and designed 
for at least automatic local control of the pumping opera- 
tions in accordance with the level of wastewater in the 
wet well. 

Present day standards require that wastewater 
pumping stations have sufficient pumping capacity to 
handle peak incoming flows with the largest pumping unit 
out of service. Accordingly, it will be necessary to 
increase the capacity of the pumping equipment in all of 
these stations that serve separate sewer systems with the 
possible exception of Quincy which has adequate capacity. 
However, in the case of Quincy, due to the age of the 
equipment, the drive and pumping units should be replaced. 



3-3 



CHAPTER 4 

SEWER RELIEF REQUIREMENTS UNDER SERVICE 
AREA CONCEPTS STUDIED 



General 

Five alternative basic concepts are considered in 
this study for the collection and disposal of sewage flows 
from the Eastern Massachusetts Metropolitan Area. The 
sewer relief requirements under the fifth concept are 
identical to those in Concept 4, consequently, required 
changes to the existing MSD system as presented for Concept 
4 below, also apply to Concept 5. Detailed descriptions of 
each concept are given in Technical Data Volumes 4 (Con- 
cepts 1 through 4) and 5 (Concept 5). For comparison of 
areas to be served in the year 2000 with the present 
service areas see Tables 2-1 and 2-3. 

Concept 1 

This concept is visualized as a regional plan to 
upgrade the existing MSD service area. This increases 
the areas served by the Deer and Nut Island treatment 
plants to the following: 

Deer Island service From 68,200 to 

area 87*600 sewered acres 

Nut Island service From 64,600 to 

area 9 9,300 sewered acres 

Addition of the towns of Lincoln, Lynnfield and Weston to 
the existing North System and Dover, Hopkinton, Sharon and 
Sherborn to the existing South System are included in this 
plan. The interceptors that require relief under this 
concept are illustrated on Figure 4-1 (bound in back). 
Table 4-1 lists the interceptors (in groupings by section 
number) requiring relief, the year relief is required and 
the lengths and sizes of these relief sewers. 

Concept 2 

Concept 2 is visualized as a regional plan with 
some contraction of the existing Deer Island and Nut Island 
service areas to the following: 

Deer Island service From 68,200 to 

area 72,700 sewered acres 

Nut Island service From 64,600 to 

area 37,100 sewered acres 

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In Concept 2, Lincoln, Lynnfield and Weston would be added 
to the MSD system but sewage flows from Lincoln and Weston 
would not flow to Deer Island. Instead sewage from 
Lincoln, Weston, Waltham, Watertown and part of Newton 
would be treated at a proposed treatment plant in the 
Watertown area. In the South Metropolitan System, Sherborn 
and Dover would be added but sewage flows would be treated 
at a proposed treatment plant on the Charles River together 
with flows from Natick* Wellesley, Needham and part of . 
Dedham. Sharon would be added to the South System but 
sewage flows from Sharon would be treated at one of two 
proposed treatment plants in the Canton area along with 
sewage from Walpole, Stoughton and parts of Norwood and 
Canton. Figure 4-1 (bound in back) illustrates the relief 
requirements under Concept 2. Table 4-2 lists the inter- 
ceptors requiring relief, year relief required and lengths 
and sizes of the relief sewers. 

Concept 3 

Concept 3 is a regional plan with maximum possible 
expansion of the MSD system. This increases the areas 
served by the Deer and Nut Island plants to the following: 

Deer Island service From 68,200 to 

area 87,600 sewered acres 

Nut Island service From 64,600 to 

area 111,400 sewered acres 

In this concept, Lincoln, Lynnfield and Weston would be 
added to the North Metropolitan System. In the south, 
Southborough, Hopkinton, Holliston, Sherborn, Dover, 
Medfield, Millis, Medway, Milford, Norfolk, Franklin, 
Wrenthan, Sharon and part of Bellingham would be added. 
Figure 4-1 illustrates the extent of relief required in 
this concept for the existing North and South Systems. 
Table 4-3 lists the interceptors requiring relief, year 
relief required and the sizes and lengths of relief 
sewers . 

Concept 4 

Concept 4 is a regional plan with maximum decentrali- 
zation of the existing MSD system by construction of addi- 
tional upstream treatment plants within present service 
areas. This reduces the area served by the existing sys- 
tem at the Deer and Nut Island plants to the following: 

Deer Island service From 68,20 to 

area 36,300 sewered acres 

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Nut Island service From 64,600 to 

area 40, 400 sewered acres 

Figure 4-1 shows the extent of relief to the existing 
system required in this plan. Table 4-4 lists all inter- 
ceptors that require relief, year relief required, and the 
sizes and lengths of the relief sewers. 

Estimated Costs and Priorities 



Table 4-5 lists estimated costs of improvements for 
the various groups of interceptors under the four alternative 
concepts. The listed costs are divided into two categories; 
Present and Future. All interceptors that require relief 
now or in the near future (by 1980) are considered as present 
relief requirements. All other interceptors that require 
relief after 1980 are considered as future relief require- 
ments. The estimated costs presented in Table 4-5 are based 
on estimated January 1975 ENR Index 2200 and include a 
2 5 percent allowance for engineering and contingency. 

Cost estimates presented do not include costs for 
extension sewers needed for connecting additional towns and 
communities to the existing North and South Metropolitan 

stems under the four alternate concepts. Table 4-6 
lists the costs of these extension sewers and the total 
costs under the four concepts. 

During the process of modeling the MDC interceptor 
system it was found that certain interceptor sections are 
already heavily surcharged and require immediate relief. 
In order to alleviate sewer surcharging and associated 
problems in these interceptors, it is suggested that highest 
priority be given to final engineering and design of these 
relief sewers. Table 4-7 lists the MDC interceptors that 
require high priority attention for relief under the four 
alternate concepts and the associated costs. 



4-20 



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4-28 



CHAPTER 5 

INTERCEPTOR RELIEF REQUIREMENTS 
UNDER THE RECOMMENDED PLAN 



G e ne ra 1 

The Recommended Plan visualizes the addition of the 
Towns of Lincoln, Lynnfield and Weston to the North Metro- 
politan System and Dover, Hopkinton, Sharon, Sherborn and 
Southborough to the South Metropolitan System. In addition, 
two new satellite wastewater treatment plants are proposed 
for the South Metropolitan System - discharging to the 
middle Charles and upper Neponset Rivers. The proposed 
Middle Charles Treatment Plant would serve Ashland, Framing- 
ham, Hopkinton, Natick, Sherborn and Southborough and parts 
of Dover and Wellesley. The proposed Upper Neponset Treat- 
ment Plant would treat wastewater from Sharon, Stoughton 
and Walpole and parts of Canton and Norwood. Under this 
Recommended Plan areas served by the four treatment plants 
would be as follows: 

Existing Deer Island From 68,200 to 87,600 sewered 



Treatment Plant 

Existing Nut Island 
Treatment Plant 

Proposed Middle 
Charles Plant 

Proposed Upper 
Neponset Plant 



acres in year 2000 

From 64,600 to 58,000 sewered 

acres in year 2000 

24,100 sewered acres in 
year 2000 

17,200 sewered acres in 
year 2000 



Relief Requirements 



MDC interceptors requiring relief under the Recom- 
mended Plan are shown in Figure 5-1 (bound in back). The 
extent and size of pipes to be relieved are shown in Table 
5-1 along with the estimated time when such relief would 
be required. 

Relief sizes shown in Table 5-1 are based on the 
assumption that such relief would be constructed parallel 
to existing pipes. In final design, other more appropriate 
alignments, and slopes may be selected. For this reason, 
the design flows for each sewer to be relieved is presented 
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5-11 



The estimated cost of interceptor relief in accor- 
dance with the groupings of pipes presented in Table 5-1 
is shown in Table 5-3. 

Under the Recommended Plan, extension of intercep- 
tors will be required to serve expected new member communi- 
ties. The estimated size, flow and cost of these is shown 
in Table 5-4 along with the projected date when such 
facilities will be needed. 



5-12 



TABLE 5-3- ESTIMATED COST OF INTERCEPTOR IMPROVEMENTS 
REQUIRED UNDER THE RECOMMENDED PLAN 



Name of interceptor 
No.(l) requiring relief 



Estimated cost, 
(millions of dollars) 



1 


Millbrook Valley Sewer 


3.8 




2 


Wilmington Extension 








Sewer 


3.0 




3 


Reading Extension 








Sewer 


On-going 




4 


North Metropolitan 








Sewer 


1.7 




5 


Chelsea Branch Sewer 


0.1 




6 


Revere Extension Sewer 


3.4 




7 


Stoneham Extension 








Sewer 


0.3 




8 


Stoneham Trunk Sewer 


0.1 




9 


Wakefield Branch Sewer 


1.0 




10 


Wakefield Trunk Sewer 


4.8 




11 


North Charles 








Metropolitan Sewer 


1.3 




12 


South Charles Relief 








Sewer 


2.7 




13 


South Charles Relief 








Sewer 


2.9 




14 


South Charles River 








Sewer 


12.6 




15 


Charles River Crossing 


Included in No. 


14 


16 


Cross Connection 


Included in No. 


14 


17 


Cummingsville Branch 








Sewer 


1.0 




18 


Somerville-Medford 








Branch Sewer 


4.5 




Subtotal North System 


43.2 




19 


Upper Neponset Valley 








Sewer 


On-going 




20 


New Neponset Valley 








Sewer 


Included in No. 


21 


21 


Stoughton Extension 








Sewer 


1.9 




22 


Walpole Extension 








Sewer 


11.9 




23 


Westwood Extension 








Sewer 


2.4 




24 


Braintree -Weymouth 








Extension Sewer 


0.9 




25 


Framingham Extension 








Sewer 


22.5 




Subtot 


al South System 


39.6 




Total 


North and South Systems 


82.8 





1. Numbers correspond to those in Table 5-1- 



5-13 



TABLE 5-4. INTERCEPTOR REQUIREMENTS FOR 
NEW COMMUNITIES UNDER THE RECOMMENDED PLAN 



Interceptor 
designation 




Size, 
(in.) 


Length, 
(ft) 




Cost , 
($) 


Lynnfield Extension 
Sewer 




varies 
12 in. 
to 
21 in. 


6,000 


$ 


367,000 


Ashland-Kcpkington 
Extension Sewer 




varies 
21 in. 
to 
^8 in. 


36,700 


$ 


4,45Q,000 


Weston Lincoln 
Extension Sewer 




varies 
30 in. 
to 
42 in. 


33,4oo 


$ 


3,832,000 


Southboro Extension 


Sewer 


varies 
24 in. 
to 
36 in. 


26,800 


$ 


2,421,000 


Sharon Extension Sewer 


36 in. 


7,400 


$ 


1,218,000 


Total 








$1 


•2,297,0" n 



5-14 



CHAPTER 6 

WASTEWATER PUMPING STATION ANALYSIS 
AND IMPROVEMENTS 



General 

This chapter covers the following 10 existing pumping 
stations. Their approximate location and their dry weather 
flow service areas are shown on Figure 6-1 (bound in back). 

Alewife Brook East Boston Steam Houghs Neck 

Braintree-Weymouth East Boston Electric Quincy 

Charlestown Hingham Reading 

Squantum 

The remaining two, namely the Old Deer Island and 
Winthrop pumping stations are not discussed in this chapter 
due to their status of not being used. The Deer Island 
Pumping Station was not inventoried because it has been 
decommissioned and its prime pumping equipment has been 
removed. The Winthrop Pumping Station was, however, 
inventoried and is presented in Appendix F. 

Under all of the wastewater management concepts 
under study, these pumping stations must be retained to 
provide for the needs of their service areas. The purpose 
of this chapter is to delineate the need for modifying 
these stations to meet present requirements more efficiently, 
and to determine the most economical designs that will 
provide pumping stations capable of meeting the require- 
ments of their service areas some 25 years hence. 

With the exception of the Alewife Brook and Hingham 
pumping stations, all are over 2 5 years old. Today's 
standards for the design of wastewater pumping stations are 
appreciably different from those generally accepted during 
the period when many of the existing facilities were con- 
structed. Today's standards require more reliable operation 
and permit lower maintenance and operating cost, better 
access to the equipment and safer working conditions for 
the operating personnel. It can be anticipated that to 
meet today's design standards, many of the existing pumping 
stations will require such extensive modifications that 
replacement may be a preferable alternative. 



6-1 



Before presenting the findings on each pumping 
station, a general description of the function of the two 
East Boston pumping stations is given as follows and shown 
schematically on Figure 6-2. The East Boston Steam Pumping 
Station was constructed with the original North Metropolitan 
Sewer for the purpose of lifting sewage into the North 
Metropolitan Sewer after it crossed Chelsea Creek through 
siphons. Upon construction- of a section of the North 
Metropolitan Relief Sewer down to Chelsea Creek, a temporary 
pumping station was constructed to lift flows from the 
relief sewer into Chelsea Creek until the relief sewer is 
extended to the outfalls off Deer Island. At that time, 
provision was also made for the East Boston Electric 
Pumping Station to function as a standby facility to the 
East Boston Steam Station. With the construction of the 
MDC tunnel system, namely the North Metropolitan Relief 
Tunnel and the Main Pumping Station at the Deer Island 
Treatment Plant, most flows normally entering the two East 
Boston pumping stations were diverted to the Chelsea Creek 
Headworks (described in the next chapter) for screening 
prior to entry into the tunnel. This has placed the two 
stations into a standby category except that the East 
Boston Steam Pumping Station still has to lift a relatively 
small amount of flow coming from the Orient Heights and 
East Boston Sewer. Flows from these two areas, plus flows 
from Winthrop, are the only sewage presently diverted to 
the lower end of the large North Metropolitan sewer during 
normal dry weather flows. In addition to acting as 
standby facilities for the Main Pumping Station at the 
Deer Island Treatment Plant, these facilities can also 
provide additional transmission capacity to Deer Island 
during wet weather flows. 

Evaluation Procedure 

Detailed inventories of the pumping stations were 
conducted by electrical and mechanical engineers experienced 
in pumping facility design and operation. 

In addition, major pumping stations were inspected 
and evaluated by Mr. Allen J. Burdoin, consultant to 
Metcalf & Eddy, for their feasibility of upgrading. 

The sections on pumping station improvements are the 
results of these inspections and evaluations. 

Appendix E presents a list of abbreviations that 
were used extensively in the inventory analysis of both the 
pumping stations and headwork facilities. Appendix F 
presents a detailed inventory of the major equipment in 
the MDC pumping stations. 

6-2 







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D 



Capacity Requirements 

Table 6-1 sets forth the total installed capacity, 
the present available capacity and the year 2000 capacity 
requirements for each of the 10 pumping stations evaluated. 
The future capacity requirements are based on estimated 
year 2000 dry weather flows. Those stations serving com- 
bined sewer areas must be further evaluated for capacity 
needs as part of detailed combined sewer overflow regula- 
tion analysis in their areas and all pumping station 
capacities must be further studied during Infiltration/ 
Inflow Analyses. As discussed in Technical Data Vol. 2, 
flow quantitification in this study allows for a reasonable 
amount of infiltration/inflow, but presumes excessive 
amounts will be removed. In the case of the Squantum 
Pumping Station, alternative future capacity requirements 
are listed, with the higher values representing those 
reported quantities of wastewater that are expected to 
occur when the present service area is extended to include 
an industrial park development within the neighboring 
area. 

The available capacity is reported to be limited in 
some cases by excessive head losses caused by the force 
mains and/or the arrangement of the discharge piping within 
the station. Such conditions are said to exist at the 
Braintree-Weymouth, East Eoston Steam, Quincy and Reading 
pumping stations. Since at times of maximum inflow, the 
Braintree-Weymouth, Quincy and Reading stations must regu- 
late the incoming flow, it would seem prudent where detailed 
hydraulic studies so indicate, to relieve this operational 
condition by providing additional force main capacity. In 
any event, this additional capacity will be required for 
year 2000 flows and any additional capacity can be utilized 
whether or not the particular pumping station is replaced . 
with a new facility or retained. 

Summary of Improvements Needed 

The normal life of a pumping station structure by 
today's engineering design standards is usually limited to 
50 years, while the life of prime movers and pumping units 
are limited to 15 to 20 years. Using these criteria, many 
of the existing structures, prime movers and pumping units 
have served their useful life. That this is actually so in 
most cases is borne out by the rehabilitation needs noted 
in Table 6-2, and the presently experienced difficulty in 
securing replacement parts for some of the older operating 
units. The information presented is derived from field 
inspections and discussions with supervisory and operating 
personnel . 



6-4 



TABLE 6-1. FUTURE CAPACITY REQUlKEMtNTiJ FOK DRY WEATHER FLOWS - 2000 





Total 
Installed 
capacity, 
mgd 


Installed 

capacity 

largest 

unit 

out of 

service, 

mgd 


Estimated 
available 
capacity, 
mgd 


2000 capacity 
requirements 


Type of 

area 

served 




Pumping station 


Average 
dry 

weather j 
mgd 


Peak 
dry 

weather, 
mgd 


Remarks 


Alewife Brook 
Braintree-Weymouth 


90.6 
60 


64.4 
40 


90.6 
44(D 


13-7 
26.9 


30.9 
58.7 


Combined- 
separate 

Separate 


Increased pump- 



Charlestown 140 

East Boston Steam 205^3) 



East Boston Electric 125 
tiingnam 4 . 2 



Houghs Neck 



Quincy 
Reading 

Squantum 
Total 



2.8 



90 
105 



50 
2.8 



1.4 



140 
135-150(2) 



125 
3-5 



33.3 
6.8 



73.3 

20.0 



Combined- 
separate 



Combined 



Standby Combined 
2.5 8.3 Se ate 



1.2 



2.2 



Separate 



ing capacity to 
bO mgd with 
largest unit 
out of service. 



Provide addi- 
tional smaller 
capacity pump- 
ing units to 
handle dry 
weather flows. 



Increase pump- 
ing capacity to 
9 mgd with 
largest unit 
out of service. 

Increase pump- 
ing capacity to 
3 mgd with 
largest unit 
out of service. 



52 


32 


20.0(2) 


14.5 


26.2 


Separate 




a 


4 


4.0(2) 


4.9 


14.0 


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Increase 
capacity 


a 


4 


5.0 


2.4 


4.4 


Separate 




595 




577 


10.0 


18. 0(4) 


Separate 


Increase 
capacity 



1. Capacity controlled by condition discharge piping and capacity of force main. 

2. Capacity controlled by force main. 

3. Excluding the 45 mgd capacity pump that has been out of service for many years. 

4. Estimates based on extensive industrial park development in expanded service area. 



6-5 



TABLE 6-2 . IMMEDIATE REHABILITATION NEEDS OP MDC PUMPING STATIONS 



PUMPING STATION 



AGE PUMPING 

OF EQUIPMENT 

STATION CAPACITY 

yrs. mgd 



S5E 

OF 

PUMPING 

EQUIPMENT 

yrs. 



AGE 

OF 
DRIVE 
UNITS FLOW M£ASUREMENT 

V rs - DEVICE 



IMMEDIATE REHABILITATION NEEDS 



MECHANICAL 



ELECTRICAL 



ARCHITECTURAL 



ALEHIFE BROOK 



23 



HEATING - PLUMBING 



3 UK ITS @ 26.2 


23 


100 H.P. ELECTRIC MOTORS 


23 


1 UNIT @ 12.0 


23 


50 H.P. ELECTRIC MOTOR 


23 


TOTAL 90.6 









NONE 



OVERHAUL PUMPING EQUIPMENT OVERHAUL ELECTRIC MOTORS 



MODIFY DISCHARGE PIPING, 
ADD CHECK VALVE I GATE VALVE 

REPLACE ORIGINAL BAR SCREENS 
AND CLEANING MECHANISMS 
HHEN NECESSARY 



REPAIR AUTOMATIC CONTROL 
SYSTEM-REPLACE RHEOSTATS 



UPGRADE FLOURESCENT LIGHTING 



REPAIR ROOF 
REPLACE GUTTERS 



POINT UP HALLS 



INSTALL NEH BOILER t, HEM 
HEATING SYSTEM 



INSTALL NEH VENTILATION 
SYSTEM IN MET HELL AREA 



INSTALL NEH OUTSIDE FUEL TANK PROVIDE VENTILATION IN 
HET HELL AND BAR SCREEN 
AREAS 



BRAINTREE - HEYMOUTH 



2 UNI TS § 20 


3 


220 H.P. DIESEL ENGINES 


1 UNIT § 20 


16 


203 H.P. DIESEL ENGINE 


TOTAL 60 







REPLACE 16 YR. OLD DIESEL 
DRIVE AND PUMP UNIT 



ADD ADDITIONAL BAR SCREEN 
AND CLEANING MECHANISM 



REPLACE PRIMING SYSTEM 



OVERHAUL COOLING SYTEMS 
DRIVE UNITS 2 AND 3 ' 



REVISE INSIDE DISCHARGE 
PIPING ARRANGEMENT 



PROVIDE MOTORIZED SLUICE 
GATES IN INFLUENT LINE 



PROVIDE AC SUPPLY TO BOILER 



PROVIDE AC SUPPLY FOR 
LIGHTS & REVISE LIGHTING 
SYSTEM. 



PROVIDE ISOLATED AREA 
FOR BOILER 

PROVIDE HORKSHOP AREA 

REPLACE GUTTERS 
REPLACE HINDOHS 
POINT UP HALLS 
PROVIDE STORAGE AREA 



INSTALL NEH BOILER AND 
HEATING SYSTEM 



INSTALL NEH PLUMBING SYSTEM 



OUTSIDE PIPING 



PROVIDE VENTURI METERS IN 
OUTSIDE FORCE MAINS 



PROVIDE VENTURI METER 

REPLACE AND REDESIGN 
FORCE MAIN 



2 UNI TS @ 45 


18 


175 H.P. DIESEL ENGINES 


1 UNIT § 50 


12 


270 H.P. DIESEL ENGINE 


TOTAL 140 







REPLACE PUMPING UNITS 
REPLACE DIESEL ENGINES 



REPLACE SUCTION AND 
DISCHARGE PIPING 



REPLACE SUCTION AND 
DISCHARGE VALVES 



REPLACE BAR SCREENS 



PROVIDE A.C. SERVICE 



REPLACE ELECTRIC LIGHTING 



POINT UP HALLS 



REPLACE BOILER AND HEATING 
SYSTEM 



PROVIDE ADEQUATE VENTILATION PROVIDE VENTURI METER 
IN SCREEN ROOM AND PUMP PITS. 



EAST BOSTON STEAM 



1 UNIT @ 60 
1 UNIT @ 45 
1 UNIT @ 100 



1 UNIT e 45 
NOT OPERABLE 



UNIFLOH STEAM ENGINE 

STEAM ENGINE 

750 H.P. DIESEL ENGINE 



STEAM ENGINE 



REPLACE BAR SCREENS 



REPLACE STEAM ENGINE 
AND PUMPS AS NECESSARY 



REPLACE VALVES IN SUCTION 
AND DISCHARGE PIPING 



UPGRADE ELECTRIC LIGHTING 



REPAIR ROOF 

POINT UP HALLS 

REPAIR BOILER ROOM FLOOR 

PROVIDE NEH HINDOHS 



UPGRADE BOILER AND HEATING 



INSTALL VENTILATION IN 
SCREEN ROOM & PUMP PITS 



PROVIDE VENTURI 
METER IN OUTSIDE 
FORCE MAIN 



EAST BOSTON ELECTRIC 

AND CHELSEA SCREEN CHAMBER 



1 UNIT § 75 


30 


600 H.P. ELECTRIC MOTOR 


30 


VENTURI METER 


REPLACE BAR SCREENS 


PROVIDE ANOTHER SOURCE 


1 UNIT § 50 
TOTAL 125 


30 


400 H.P. ELECTRIC MOTOR 


30 


(NOT CONNECTED) 


REPAIR VENTURI INDICATING 
SYSTEM 

PROVIDE NEH'PRIMING 
SYSTEM 


OF POHER OR STANDBY 
GENERATOR 

PROVIDE LIGHTING SCREEN 
CHAMBER 



PROVIDE BOILER AND HEATING 
SYSTEM FOR PUMPING STATION 
IF EAST BOSTON STEAM IS 
ABANDONED 



PROVIDE IMPROVED VENTILATION IN 
SCREEN CHAMBER AND ELECTRIC 
PUMPING STATION 



CHECK PUMPS TO DETERMINE 
IF THEY REQUIRE REPLACEMENT 



RECONNECT AND UPGRADE 
AUTOMATIC CONTROL SYSTEM 



BINGHAM 



3 UNITS 8 1.4 
TOTAL 4.2 



60 H.P. ELECTRIC MOTORS 



PARSHALL FLUME 



REPLACE PUMPING UNITS 



REPLACE GATE VALVES IN 
DISCHARGE PIPING 



PROVIDE ANOTHER SOURCE 
OF POHER OR STANDBY 
GENERATOR 



ELIMINATE OVERFLOHS 



PROVIDE VENTURI 



TABLE 6-2 (Continued). IMMEDIATE REHABILITATION NEEDS OF MDC PUMPING STATIONS 



PUMPING STATION 



HOUGHS HECK 



S5E 

AGE PUMPING OF 

OF EQUIPMENT PUMPING 

STATION CAPACITY EQUIPMENT 

yrs. mgd yrs. 



AGE 

OF 
DRIVE 
UNITS FLOW MEASUREMENT 

yrs - DEVICE 



IMMEDIATE REHABILITATION NEEDS 



ELECTRICAL 



ARCHITECTURAL 



2 UHITS 6 1.4 
TOTAL 2.8 



10 H.P. ELECTRIC MOTORS 



7 VEHTURI UPDATE MOTOR COHTROL SYSTEM GEHERAL REHIRIHG 

(MOT COHHECTED) AHD VEHTURI RECORDIHG SYSTEM 

PROVIDE SUMP PUMP 



HEATING - PLUMBING 



OUTSIDE PIPING 



UPGRADE VEHTILATIOH SYSTEM 



MODERHIZE MET HELL 
ARRAMGEMEHT 



QUIHCY 



2 UHITS e 20 


24 


1 UHIT § 12 


n 


TOTAL 52 





170 H.P. DIESEL EHGIHES 
66 H.P. DIESEL EHGIHE 



24 

77 


VEHTURI 
(HOT COHHECTED) 


REPLACE PUMPIHG UHITS 

HO. 1 AHD HO. 2 AHD DIESEL 

EHGIHES 


UPDATE ELECTRIC LIGHTIHG 
SYSTEM 


REPAIR ROOF 
REPLACE GUTTERS 


REPLACE AHD RELOCATE 
BOILER 






REPAIR VEHTURI 




REPLACE HIHDOHS 


UPDATE HEATIHG SYSTE 






REPAIR CHECK VALVES OH 
DISCHARGE 




POIHT UP HALLS 


N 



PROVIDE ADEQUATE VEHTILATIOH 
IH MET HELL AREA AHD PUMP 
ROOM AREA 



PROVIDE ADDITIOHAL FORCE 
MAIH 



REPLACE AHD RELOCATE 
OHE BAR SCREEH 



REPLACE PRIMIHG SYSTEM 



REVAMP IHSIDE DISCHARGE 
PIPIHG 



1 UHIT § 4 
1 UHIT 6 4 
TOTAL 8 



100 H.P. ELECTRIC MOTOR 
120 H.P. DIESEL EHGIHE 
100 H.P. ELECTRIC MOTOR 



UHKHOHH 
22 
50 



REPLACE OHE PUMPIHG UHIT 
AHD THO ELECTRIC MOTORS 



ADD ADDITIOHAL PUMPIHG UHIT 
RECOHSTRUCT MET HELL 



PROVIDE HEM MOTOR COHTROL 
CEHTER 



PROVIOi H€H ELECTRIC MOTOR 
COHTROLS AHD SHITCH GEAR 



REPAIR ROOF 
REPAIR GUTTERS 



REPLACE AHD MODERHIZE 
HIHDOHS 



PROVIDE HEH BOILER AHD 
HEATIHG SYSTEM 



PROVIDE ADEQUATE PLUMBIHG 
FACILITIES 



PROVIDE HEH VEHTILATIOH 
FACILTIES THROUGHOUT 



PROVIDE ADDITIOHAL FORCE MAIH 
PROVIDE VEHTURI METERS 



PROVIDE HEH BAR SCREEHS 
AHD BAR SCREEH CHAMBER 



UPDATE ELECTRICAL LIGHTIHG 
SYSTEM 



HATERPROOF HALLS 



REPLACE DIESEL UHIT OR 
PROVIDE STAHDBY SOURCE 
OF POHER 



PROVIDE STAHDBY GEHERATOR 



PROVIDE ADEQUATE STORAGE 
AHD HORKSHOP AREAS 



SQUAHTUM 



1 UHIT e 4 
1 UHIT § 4 
TOTAL 8 



60 H.P. 


ELECTRIC MOTOR 


38 


VEHTURI 


80 H.P. 


DIESEL EHGIHE 




(HOT COHHECTED) 


60 H.P. 


ELECTRIC MOTOR 


38 





PROVIDE MECHAHICALLY 
CLEAMED BAR SCREEHS 



REPLACE PUMPIHG EQUIPMEHT 



REPLACE GATE VALVES IH 
SUCTIOH PIPIHG 



PROVIDE STAHDBY GEHERATOR 



REPAIR GUTTERS 
REPLACE HIHDOHS 



PROVIDE HEH BOILER 
AHD HEATIHG SYSTEM 



PROVIDE ADEQUATE VEHTILATIOH 
THROUGHOUT 



RECOHSTRUCT HET HELL 
COHHECT VEHTURI 



The older stations namely, Charlestown, East Boston 
Steam, Quincy and Reading, require the most rehabilitation 
work. These stations range from 5^ to 84 years of age. 
Generally, the rehabilitation work consists of providing 
new heating and electrical systems, replacement of drive 
and pumping units, providing adequate ventilation, modify- 
ing suction and discharge valves and piping, and installing 
new or additional bar screens. 

At most pumping stations, it is anticipated that new 
drive units would consist of electric motors or drives of a 
type that can be controlled to regulate their speed in 
accordance with the level of wastewater in the wet well 
and correspondingly the output of the pumps. It is also 
preferred to locate the casing of the pumps below the 
minimum level of wastewater in the wet well, to avoid the 
installation of priming equipment -which can be quite 
troublesome from a maintenance and automatic control 
operation standpoint. 

To properly operate a pumping facility and to 
accurately monitor the wastewater flows within a wastewater 
collection and treatment system, it is necessary to contin- 
ually measure and record the flows that are discharged by 
pumping stations. In many instances, adequate flow measur- 
ing devices are not available at the existing stations. For 
this reason, the rehabilitation work includes the installa- 
tion of meters for this purpose. 

It is important in certain instances that some of 
the rehabilitation work be undertaken immediately, because 
the ability of the particular station to meet present needs 
under existing conditions is marginal at best. 

It should also be noted, however, that even with 
completion of the designated rehabilitation work many of 
the stations, possibly excluding the Alewife Brook, East 
Boston Electric and Hingham pumping stations, will not con- 
form to present engineering standards for wastewater 
pumping stations. This is because accepted practice for 
stations requires provision of separate wet and dry well 
sections in both substructure and superstructure, adequate 
access to wet wells, dry wells and equipment, adequate 
working areas around bar screens and equipment, wet wells 
designed to reduce septicity problems by minimizing 
retention times, isolated boiler installations, and 
adequate facilities such as cranes, hoists, etc. for 
removal of equipment. Many of these standards cannot be 
met unless the structural arrangement of the existing 
stations are extensively altered and/or expanded. 



6-8 



The following sections contain a brief description 
of the operational features of each of the 10 existing 
stations presently used together with brief comments on 
improvements needed and alternatives where appropriate. 
These descriptions are listed in alphabetical order. A 
detailed inventory of the pumping station equipment is 
presented in Appendix F. 

Alewife Brook Pumping Station 

As shown on Figure 6-1 (bound in back), this 
pumping station serves parts of Arlington, Belmont, 
Cambridge, Somerville and Medford. 

It is one of the newer stations, built about 23 years 
ago, and, therefore, rehabilitation of the equipment listed 
in Table 6-2 should adequately bring the station to 
standards for handling of dry weather flows. 

During the year 19 71 the average daily pumping rate 
was 11.2 mgd (million gallons per day) and the maximum 
24-hour rate was 45.3 mgd. 

However, the Alewife Brook Pumping Station is 
operated at a rate of 90.6 mgd during times of storm runoff 
due to tributary combined sewers. Since this is the total 
installed capacity no standby pumping unit equal in capacity 
to the largest unit now in service is available at such 
times. Because of the configuration of the wet well and 
dry well, additional pumping capacity cannot be accomplished 
without expanding the wet well and dry well structures. 

Another major difficulty in the operation of this 
pumping station occurs during rainstorms in that when the 
station is discharging at the rate of 90.6 mgd, the down- 
stream sewer is surcharged and at times wastewater is dis- 
charged to the ground surface. Such discharges run across 
the ground to Alewife Brook. This situation can be remedied 
by providing a downstream relief sewer. It also can be 
remedied by eliminating the storm inflows to the pumping 
station by sewer separation or by combined sewer overflow 
regulation at selected points to handle any excess flows. 

The work that will be required to properly rehabili- 
tate this station can be best determined after detailed 
studies are made to determine the economics and possibility 
of effectively reducing the storm inflows to the station. 

Braintree-Weymouth Pumping Station 

This station pumps sewage from the Braintree-Weymouth 
Extension Sewer receiving sewage from Braintree, Kingham, 

6-9 



Randolph, Weymouth, and parts of Quincy into the South 
Metropolitan High Level Sewer discharging to the Nut Island 
Treatment Plant. 

It contains three diesel engine driven direct con- 
nected horizontal single end suction sewage pumps. Each 
pump has a capacity of 20 mgd at 40 to 4 2 feet head and 
operates with a suction lift. 

Unit No. 1 consists of a 24 inch Morris Pump 
operating at 510 rpm (revolutions per minute), 
driven by a 6 cylinder 8-1/2 by 8-1/2 turbocharged 
Waukesha Engine installed in May 1972. 

Unit No. 2 consists of a 24 inch Worthington Pump 
operating at 510 rpm, driven by a 6 cylinder 
9-1/2 by 10-1/2 normally aspirated Chicago Pneumatic 
engine installed in March 1970. 

Unit No. 3 consists of a 24 inch Worthington Pump 
operating at 505 rpm, driven by a 6 cylinder 8 by 
10 Enterprise engine installed in August 1958. 

Each unit drives a belt-connected 20 kw DC generator. 
All engine auxiliaries and all station equipment including 
the starting air compressors, vacuum pumps for priming, bar 
screen, and radiator fans are driven by DC motors. Radiators 
are mounted on a balcony remote from the engines. Two 
small 40 year old 6 kw engine generator units provide DC 
power when none of the three pumping units are in use. A 
15 kva 100 ampere 120/208 volt, 3-phase, 4-wire alternating 
current power supply was installed in May 1973> for opera- 
tion of a future screenings grinder. This replaced a 
220 volt, single phase, 3-wire system formerly in use. At 
present, alternating current is used only for lighting. 

Sewage enters the station through a mechanically 
cleaned bar screen set almost vertically in a deep, narrow 
channel which extends into the station underneath the pump 
room floor. The pump suction pipes extend into and draw 
from this channel. Pumps discharge vertically and then 
horizontally, all three pumps discharging into a single 
special double wye branch fitting within the station. 

During the calendar year 1971 3 the average flow 
pumped per day was 14.1 mgd, and the maximum flow pumped 
in 24 hours was 29.3 mgd. On a normal day, one pump was 
operated about 20 hours at a speed varying from 400 to 
500 rpm. When the sewage level in the incoming channel 
drops to Elevation 95 the pump is shut down and not started 



6-10 



again until the sewage level reaches Elevation 102.5. This 
usually happens several times a day, the aggregate downtime 
amounting to about four hours. The station, therefore, 
appears to have adequate capacity for present flows. 

The station is old, of late 19th century or early 
20th century design, but well maintained. The main pumping 
units are relatively new, having replaced earlier Winton 
engine pumps in 1958, 1970, and 1972. 

It is unfortunate that all three engines are of 
different manufacture, and that the pumps are by two 
manufacturers. This is a result of piecemeal replacement 
of the equipment and the requirement that the award must go 
to the low bidder. It makes proper maintenance of the 
equipment much more difficult and costly, and makes it 
almost impossible to stock adequate spare parts. Under 
today's conditions in industry it can result in equipment 
being out-of-service for long periods waiting for replace- 
ment parts that formerly were available off-the-shelf. 

The continuation of the antique DC electrical system 
is also a result of piecemeal replacement of equipment. 

The bar screen has no bypass channel or duplicate 
unit. It is so situated in a deep channel with restricted 
openings that it cannot be raked by hand in case of 
emergency. Emergencies have occurred when all that could 
be done was to push the screenings down from the top to 
provide some utilizable screen area at a high level to keep 
the pumps running, and hope that the level would not rise 
high enough to back up into basements in the low-lying 
service areas . 

The operating staff consists of 12 men to provide 
superintendance and round-the-clock attendance by an opera- 
tor and an assistant. To operate the type of equipment 
installed, this staff is needed, and has performed 
creditably. 

The cost of manual operation of attended stations is 
great in relation to that of automated equipment and can 
seldom be justified. The payroll approximates $2,000 per 
week, not counting fringe benefits, or $10^,000 per year. 
Since the sewage could be pumped electrically by 900,000 
kw hours of energy, the labor cost alone is equivalent to 
11.5 cents per kw hour. In addition, approximately 55,000 
gallons of diesel fuel, 300 gallons of lube oil, and 
engine maintenance services are required. 



6-11 



An additional inlet channel and bar rack are needed 
immediately regardless of future alternative developments. 

As an alternative to the station improvements listed 
in Table 6-2, consideration should be given to the construc- 
tion of a new automatic unattended electric station with 
standby generating or pumping capacity remotely controlled 
by telemetry. This new station could be located adjacent 
to the existing station utilizing the existing influent 
channel and the existing and proposed bar racks to the 
extent found feasible. 

Conversion of the existing station is automatic 
operation comparable to that just described for a new sta- 
tion is another alternative. This would require most of 
the improvements listed in Table 6-2 as well. 

Charlestown Pumping Station 

This station lifts the sewage from Charlestown and 
portions of Cambridge, Somerville and Medford from a tunnel 
crossing under the Mystic River to a gravity intercepting 
sewer system leading to the Chelsea Headworks. The flow 
includes areas served by combined sewers . This station 
contains three pumping units consisting of diesel engines 
driving vertical shaft centrifugal pumps through right 
angle gears . 

Units No . 1 and 2 consist of 36 inch Fairbanks- 
Morse bottom suction angle flow pumps rated at 
4 5 mgd each at 11 foot head and 240 rpm driven by 
175 hp . Fairbanks-Morse diesel engines Model 31A 
6-1/4 S, rated 600 rpm. 

Unit No. 3 consists of a 42 inch Fairbanks-Morse 
bottom suction angle flow pump driven by a 
Fairbanks-Morse 6 cylinder opposed piston diesel 
engine, Model 38F 5-1/4, rated 270 hp. at 720 rpm. 
The pump nameplate indicates the capacity as 
35,000 gpm (50 mgd) at 17 foot head and 191 rpm. 
However, the 53rd annual report lists the capacity 
as 60 mgd at 18 foot head. We believe the latter 
rating is correct, since the right angle gear has 
a speed reduction ratio of 3.45 to 1 which would 
make the pump speed 208 rpm for a rated engine 
speed of 720 rpm, and the engine has sufficient 
capacity to operate the pump at this speed. 

The pumps are located in individual circular pump 
pits with deep suction conduits taking off horizontally 



6-12 



from the influent tunnel and rising vertically beneath the 
pumps. Each suction conduit is supplied with a sluice gate 
which is practically inaccessible and at present cannot be 
operated. Each pump discharge is provided with a swing 
check valve but no gate valve. During the inspection of 
this station, the flapper had failed on Unit No. 1 and had 
been removed. A DeZurik knife valve was being installed 
to serve as a stop valve, and similar valves were planned 
for Units 2 and 3. 

Each engine drives a belt connected DC generator, 
rated 20 kw on Units 1 and 2, and 30 kw on Unit No. 3. In 
spite of the fact that the station is located in the shadow 
of the huge Mystic Station of the Boston Edison Company, 
there is no AC power in the station and no public power 
connection. 

Bar screens are of the cage type. 

During the calendar year 1971 the average quantity 
pumped per day was 64 mgd and the maximum quantity pumped 
per day was 108 mgd. Since the peak hourly rate would be 
somewhat greater, it is obvious that the station does not 
have the capacity to pump peak flows as they arrive with 
any one unit out of service, let alone the largest unit. 
When a unit is out of service at peak flows, the sewage 
temporarily backs up in the incoming sewer. 

The Charlestown Pumping Station serves combined 
sewers. Therefore, at times of storm runoff, the operating 
personnel usually operate all of the pumps within the sta- 
tion at a total discharge rate of approximately 1^0 mgd. 
At such times, the downstream sewer is normally surcharged. 

Alternatives of reducing the storm inflows into this 
station must be studied. It is reported that a large 
portion of the combined sewer system in Charlestown will be 
separated under redevelopment. In addition to separation, 
consideration should be given to combined sewer overflow 
regulation by chlorine detention treatment systems . Such 
a system could be located on the south bank of the Mystic 
River downstream from the pumping station. Detailed studies 
and investigations should be undertaken to determine the 
best alternative solution. 

The station is old. The present pumps replaced 
original steam engine driven units. Units No. 1 and 2 are 
approximately 18 years old and are in only fair condition. 
Unit No. 1 has been in operation 74,000 hours or 47 percent 



6-13 



of the time. Unit No. 2 has been in operation 83,000 hours 
or 53 percent of the time. Engines are an obsolete model, 
no longer in production. Unit No. 3 is 12 years old and 
has been in operation 53 9 500 hours or 51 percent of the 
time. Its condition was reported as only fair. Replacement 
parts have increased almost fivefold in price since the 
first order following installation and are no longer avail- 
able off-the-shelf. Furthermore, they are manufactured only 
about once a year, resulting in long waits for essential 
parts . 

The bar screens are old, must be raised and cleaned 
manually, and one of them will not go down all the way. 

The pumps operate under a positive suction head. 
Access manholes to the sluice gates are deep and flooded, 
and the manhole steps are badly corroded, some missing 
entirely. To work on the pumps it is necessary to pump 
the sewage down and fasten a plate over the suction opening 
after removing the pump. Divers have been employed to 
assist in this operation to install temporary plugs in the 
suction lines. A diver was employed to put No. 3 sluice 
gate in operation but it was discovered subsequently 
that the guide grooves had become filled with a hard sub- 
stance and the gate still could not be operated. 

Failure of the check valves has posed a serious 
problem since, in the absence of discharge gate valves, the 
pumped flow can recirculate back to the suction through an 
idle pump. A DeZurik knife valve, pneumatically operated, 
is being installed on No . 1 unit. This is the only type of 
valve with a short enough laying length to fit in the 
available space. This valve will serve satisfactorily by 
opening it after a pump has been started and closing it 
just before a pump is shut down. Similar valves are 
proposed to be installed in the discharge of Units 2 and 
3. 

The operating staff, consisting of about 12 men, 
and the maintenance department have done a remarkable job 
keeping this station in operation under unusual difficul- 
ties due to the design and age of the station and its 
equipment. 

The pneumatically operated knife valves should be 
installed as planned on all three pump discharge lines. 

As an alternative to the rehabilitation program 
indicated in Table 6-2, the construction of a new electric 
station should be considered. Since the pumping station is 



6-m 



located on a very limited site which cannot be readily 
expanded to provide space for a new installation, a new 
facility is probably better located on the south bank of 
the Mystic River. This location would require the con- 
struction of force mains across and under the Mystic River 
to the sewer downstream of the existing pumping station. 
Because of the conditions under which this construction 
must be made, the cost of providing these force mains will 
be relatively high. 

East Boston Steam Pumping Station 

As shown on Figure 6-2, this station pumps sewage 
from areas of East Boston and Orient Heights plus flow 
normally tributary to the Chelsea Headworks but diverted 
to the siphon under Chelsea Creek by throttling of the inlet 
gates in the Headworks. Before construction of the tunnel 
to Deer Island, this station, in combination with the East 
Boston Electric Station, handled almost the entire flow from 
the North Metropolitan District. Throttling of the flow at 
the Chelsea Headworks diverting sewage to this station is 
normally due to the failure of the pumps at the Deer Island 
Main Pumping Station to pump their design flow. This 
station discharges sewage through the old North Metropolitan 
Sewer from which it is diverted to the Winthrop Terminal 
Facility for pumping into the Deer Island Treatment Plant. 

Since the East Boston Steam Pumping Station serves 
the East Boston combined system, it receives large quanti- 
ties of storm runoff at times of heavy rainfall. Because 
this station and the East Boston Electric Pumping Station 
in addition are required as standby to handle excess flows 
from the Chelsea Headworks, sufficient capacity must be 
maintained at these installations under present operating 
plans . 

This pumping station is a tremendously large, old- 
fashioned brick station, built about 1898, with two tall 
stacks and four circular pump pits containing centrifugal 
pumps operating with flooded suctions. 

Pumps No. 2 and 3 are driven by the original horizon- 
tal triple expansion steam engines and are rated 
4 5 mgd each at 19 foot head. One of these pumps was 
operating during our visit to the station, and has 
ample capacity for the dry weather flow now received 
at the station. The other pump driven by a similar 
engine has been inoperable for many years. 



6-15 



Pump No. 1 is driven by a uniflow steam engine 
approximately 23 years old through a right angle 
gear. The unit is rated 60 mgd at 24 foot head and 
operates on 130 psi gage steam pressure and 26 inch 
vacuum. 

Pump No. 4 is driven by a 750 hp 12 by 15 Enterprise 
dies el engine, Model DSG-8, through a right angle 
gear and is rated 100 mgd at 19 foot head. Bar ■ 
screens are of the manually cleaned cage type. 

Three comparatively new Cleaver Brooks package 
boilers provide steam for the plant. 

Electricity is generated by steam engine driven 
generators. The open type switchboard is antiquated and 
does not meet present day standards. 

The building also houses maintenance shops of the 
MDC. 

The operating staff consists of 14 men. This provides 
for a Second Class Power Plant Engineer and a Steam Fireman 
on each shift, 24 hours per day, and a Chief and an Assistant 
Chief Power Plant Engineer and three laborers on the daylight 
shift. 

Whether the East Boston Steam Pumping Station should 
be replaced will require studies to determine the future 
role of this station within the Metropolitan District 
system. If such a study should indicate that the East 
Boston Steam Pumping Station is best used to serve only the 
needs of East Boston, then it will probably be best to 
replace this station with a small modern-type installation. 
In this event, the East Boston Electric Pumping Station would 
be rehabilitated to handle all excess flows from the Chelsea 
Keadworks. 

On the other hand, if the East Boston Steam Pumping 
Station is to be used to handle excess flows from the 
Chelsea Headworks, then it may not be economical to replace 
this station with a new facility. This is because the 
60-inch connections from the Chelsea Headworks have been 
extended to the East Boston Steam Pumping Station and to 
relocate them to a new facility will be very costly. 

It is, therefore, evident that this matter requires 
further investigation before it can be determined if the 
East Boston Steam Pumping Station should be replaced by a 
new facility or rehabilitated. 



6-16 



East Boston Electric Pumping Station 

This station was installed about 1938 to supplement 
the capacity of the East Boston Steam Station. Overflows 
from the Chelsea Headworks reach this station through two 
siphons passing under Chelsea Creek and the pumped sewage 
can be discharged to Chelsea Creek through two sluice gates 
as well as to the North Metropolitan Sewer leading to 
the Deer Island Treatment Plant. Reportedly it has not been 
necessary to discharge sewage to Chelsea Creek for the last 
eight years . 

This station contains two deep vertical sewage pumps 
operating with flooded suctions and driven by electric 
motors located at ground level. 

Pump No. 1 is a De Laval centrifugal sewage pump 
rated 75 mgd at 38.5 foot head driven by a direct 
connected 600 hp General Electric 4,000 volt motor 
at a speed of 320 rpm. 

Pump No. 2 is a De Laval centrifugal sewage pump 
rated 50 mgd at 38.4 foot head driven by a 40 hp 
General Electric 4,000 volt motor at a speed of 
394 rpm. 

The switchboard is comparatively modern. 

The station was designed to operate automatically 
but is now operated manually. 

Bar screens are housed in an unsightly timber struc- 
ture on the other side of Chelsea Creek in the yard of the 
Chelsea Keadworks. Discharge gate valves, 36 inches and 
4 2 inches in size, are located 40 feet above the pumps and 
are provided with Limi torque operators. Vacuum pumps are 
provided for exhausting air from the discharge line between 
the pumps and the gate valves before starting the motors in 
order to eliminate the possibility of waterhammer. 

The sluice gates which permit discharge to Chelsea 
Creek are manually operated by hand cranks. 

The screen house and screens are in poor condition. 
Brakes, chains and sprockets are badly worn; housings 
including electric motors are badly corroded. No ventila- 
tion or heating is provided. Railings around screen open- 
ings are dangerously corroded. Explosionproof lighting 
fixtures have been replaced by ordinary nonexplosionproof 
lights . 



6-17 



Equipment, piping, pipe supports and conduits located 
in the pump room are badly corroded. The sump pump is in 
poor condition. 

Some fastenings for electrical boxes have rusted 
away and the boxes are tied and hanging from other piping 
whose fastenings have rusted away also. 

Lighting conduits in the pump pits have rusted 
extensively. 

Pumps and motors are of modern design and suitable 
for many more years of service. 

Continuous attendance should not be needed, since the 
station was designed to operate automatically. However, 
when emergency operation of the pumps is required an 
operator could be dispatched from another facility if 
necessary . 

Corrosion damage should be corrected by repairs 
or replacement and equipment painted. 

The screen house superstructure should be replaced 
by a modern fireproof facility with explosionproof electri- 
cal equipment. The bar racks should be completely recon- 
ditioned or replaced. 

Additional improvements are listed in Table 6-2. 

Hingham Pumping Station 

The Hingham Pumping Station pumps sewage from the 
North Hingham Sewer District to the Braintree-Weymouth 
Extension Sewer via a long force main. 

The Hingham Pumping Station is one of the newer 
pumping stations within the Metropolitan District and 
generally conforms to present engineering design standards. 
Provision has been made at this pumping station for adding 
an additional pumping unit when additional capacity is 
required. The existing equipment is in good condition and 
accordingly requires a minimum of rehabilitation work. For 
these reasons, this station with modification to the 
existing pumping capacity can be readily revamped to meet 
2000 needs. The present force main is inadequate to handle 
2000 flows and will require relief. 



6-18 



Houghs Neck Pumping Station 

This is a small MDC pumping station serving the 
section of Quincy near the High Level Sewer and the Nut 
Island Treatment Plant. 

The station itself is very old. However, its pumping 
equipment has been upgraded recently. To minimize the 
requirements for operating personnel, this station was 
originally equipped with a relatively large wet well of 
horseshoe-shaped construction. These large wet wells 
permitted the storage of the incoming wastewater during 
low flow periods, which was pumped out of the system during 
the daylight hours when personnel were in attendance at 
the station. For this reason, the modernization of the 
wet well arrangement is proposed in Table 6-2 along with 
several other improvements. 

Quincy Pumping Station 

This station pumps sewage from portions of Quincy 
into two force mains about three fourths of a mile long 
leading to the High Level Sewer. 

This station is quite similar to the Braintree- 
Weymouth station. It contains three diesel engine driven 
direct connected horizontal single end suction sewage pumps 
operating with a suction lift. 

Units No. 1 and 2 each consist of a 20 inch Fairbanks- 
Morse pump driven by a 170 hp Fairbanks-Morse 31 A 
6-1/4 S diesel engine. Each pump is rated at 20 mgd 
at 33 foot head at 600 rpm. 

Unit No. 3 consists of a 20 inch Worthington pump 
driven by a 66 hp, 3 cylinder 8 by 10 Enterprise 
diesel engine, Model DSM3. The unit has a rated 
capacity of 12 mgd at 26 foot head at 500 rpm. 

Engines are radiator cooled with attached circulating 
water pumps and radiators mounted integrally with the engines. 
Radiator fans are belt driven from the engines. Auxiliaries 
consist of two electric motor driven starting air compressors 
and one electric motor driven and one gasoline engine driven 
vacuum pump. Electricity is supplied by the power company. 
Formerly single phase, this has been changed recently to a 
15 kva 120/208 volt, 3-phase service. 

Sewage enters the station through a back cleaned 
mechanical bar rack located in the basement. A new channel 



6-19 



and bar rack with the operating floor at ground floor level 
is being installed. Pumps discharge vertically and then 
horizontally, all three pumps discharging into a single 
special double wye branch fitting within the station. The 
plans show two force mains from the station to the high 
level sewer, one 30 inch and the other 24 inch in diameter. 

During the calendar year 1971, the average flow .pumped 
per day was 10.13 mgd, and the maximum flow pumped in 24 
hours was 20.01 mgd. The maximum output with all three 
pumps in operation was said to be 28 mgd, due to head losses 
in the discharge lines. 

The building is old, but appears to be well main- 
tained. Units No. 1 and 2, the Fairbanks -Morse units, were 
installed in 1950 and have been in operation 60,000 hours 
each or 30 percent of the time per unit. In other words, 
assuming only one 20 mgd pump were operated at one time, 
this would have occurred 60 percent of the time. Unit No. 3> 
the 12 mgd unit, was installed in 1957 and has been in 
operation 80,000 hours, or approximately 57 percent of the 
time. It is said to be in good condition. 

One Fairbanks -Morse engine was recently overhauled 
and the other is due for an overhaul. Both 20 mgd pumps 
were overhauled in 1969. The starting air compressors are 
also of Fairbanks -Morse manufacture and are said to be in 
poor condition with no replacement parts on hand. The 
Fairbanks-Morse diesel engines are an obsolete model and 
replacement parts may be hard to get. It is now 
impossible to obtain replacement parts off-the-shelf, and 
such parts on order are entered for production only when 
enough accumulate for a production run at a good profit. 
This may mean a wait of six months or more, with standby 
or essential equipment unavailable, unless the necessary 
parts are stocked by the MDC or can be manufactured by 
independent machine shops. 

Due to the type of pumping equipment, continuous 
round-the-clock attendance is required, since starting and 
stopping of units, control of speed, and priming of pumps 
must be done manually. Even the charging of the starting 
air storage tanks is a manual operation since automatic 
pressure switches were not installed. 



6-20 



The diesel engine for Unit No. 1 should be over- 
hauled and put in good condition. In addition, the starting 
air compressors should be put in improved operating con- 
dition. If the necessary parts cannot be obtained from 
Fairbanks-Morse in a reasonable time, a new starting air 
compressor should be purchased. 

Adequate electric lighting should be provided for 
the starting air compressor and vacuum pump areas. 

The immediate improvements to be considered are 
listed in Table 6-2. 

For the long range an alternative study of conver- 
sion of this pumping station to an automatic, unattended 
electric station should be made. It would include auto- 
matic standby generating or pumping capacity as well as 
telemetering for remote supervisory control. 

In conjunction with this study, the hydraulics of 
the two force mains should be analyzed to insure that future 
peak-flows can be pumped with one of the largest units out 
of service. 

Reading Pumping Station 

This station serves the Town of Reading and lifts 
sewage from a large concrete tank a height of 48 feet 
with tank full or 62 feet with tank drawn down and dis- 
charges through a 16 inch force main 1,400 feet long passing 
under Route 128 and emptying into the Reading Extension 
Sewer. 

The station contains two vertical shaft nonclog 
sewage pumps located in a pump room approximately 16 feet 
square with floor 44 feet below ground level, and 34 feet 
below basement level. Pumps operate with a positive head 
on the suction varying from one to 15 feet. Motors are 
located at ground floor level. Suction and discharge gate 
valves are operated by floor stands at the basement level. 
Cage type bar screens can be raised to basement level for 
manual cleaning. 

Unit No. 1 consists of an 8 inch Fairbanks-Morse 
bottom suction nonclog pump rated 4 mgd at 80 foot 
head driven by a 100 hp 865 rpm G.E. wound rotor 
motor. The unit is started and controlled manually 
and is operated only at full speed. 



6-21 



Unit No. 2 consists of an 8 inch Morris bottom 
suction none log pump rated 4 mgd at 75 foot head 
with dual drive consisting of a Fairbanks -Morse 
two cycle diesel engine, Model 49A 4-1/2 6S rated 
120 hp at 1,200 rpm driving through a right angle 
gear on top of which is mounted a 100 hp 1,170 rpm 
4il0 V 3-phase squirrel cage electric motor made by 
Fairbanks-Morse. Change-over from electric drive 
to engine drive and vice-versa requires manual 
shifting of a clutch collar and takes one man 20 
to 30 minutes. The electric motor is provided with 
a manual lever operated reduced voltage starter. 

Alternating current is supplied by the Reading 
Municipal Light & Power Company. 

The pump room is reached from the basement level by 
three flights of vertical ladders interrupted by two inter- 
mediate platforms. 

During the calendar year 1971 the average flow was 
2.31 mgd and the maximum flow pumped per day was 4.01 mgd. 
On many occasions, water rises in the sewers above the crown 
of the pipe and residents complain of slow flushing toilets. 
Sanitary sewage flows are increasing; during the last five 
years the pumps 1 operating time has tripled. 

The above flows are estimated, since the station does 
not have a flow meter. With the minimum static head and a 
full collection reservoir it is probable that the peak pump- 
ing rate of one pump is considerably greater than 4 mgd. 

The station was built in 1920. The structure appears 
to be in good condition. The station has no emergency 
lighting system and battery operated flashlights must be 
used during night-time power outages. With only one opera- 
tor on duty, this makes it considerably more difficult to 
connect the diesel engine and get it in operation. 

The electric switchboard contains open knife switches 
and represents a danger to the operator and others having 
business at the station, in case of accidental contact. 
Pump motor starters are manual type lever operated. The 
resistor bank for the wound rotor motor is located in the 
basement, which is badly cluttered up. The electrical 
installation is not up to present day standards of safety, 
reliability and convenience. 



6-22 



The diesel engine is an obsolete model and replace- 
ment parts may be difficult to obtain. 

Pump No. 2 is in operation without wearing rings. 
A new pump has been received as a replacement and is due 
to be installed soon. 

The screen room hoists and lighting should be explo- 
si.onproof, but are not. The light is operated by a pull 
chain. The cage type bar racks are badly corroded and the 
hoists in poor shape. Screenings amounting to 3 to 6 cubic 
feet per day are placed in barrels and carried up the rear 
entry to the basement level. 

The operator reports a considerable buildup of grease 
or scale on the inside of the discharge piping at the pumps. 

The 16 inch discharge pipe rises vertically from the 
pump room to the basement level within the concrete wall of 
the station. In the basement it turns to a horizontal 
direction and runs as bell and spigot pipe about 4-1/2 feet 
above the floor to exit from the station. Several years 
ago, it was noticed that the 16 inch 90 degree bell and spigot 
elbow at the top of the vertical rise had pulled one inch 
out of its socket, after which the joints were strapped. 
The exact time and operational incident which caused the 
joint to pull apart was not observed or determined. 

A 6 inch riser pipe from the pump discharge to the 
basement level is supposed to be kept full of air from an 
air compressor in the basement to serve as a surge suppres- 
sor since the discharge piping could be subject under cer- 
tain conditions to severe waterhammer pressures. In our 
opinion, this arrangement is not fully effective. 

When Route 128 was constructed, 500 feet of 16 inch 
pipe was installed to serve as a future duplicate force 
main from the station. This pipe has not yet been placed 
in service. 

The station is heated by an oil fired steam boiler. 
The operator reports inadequate heat in the wintertime. 

The operating staff consists of a superintendant and 
four operators for round-the-clock station attendance. This 
means that at nights, and occasionally on days, only one 



6-23 



operator is on duty. In case of an accident, this man 
would be helpless until his relief arrived. During the 
periods when only one operator is on duty, an hourly police 
check by telephone or squad car should be instituted. 

Improvements needed are summarized in Table 6-2. 
Replacement of Pump No. 2 should be carried out as planned 
along with increase in pumping capacity. Extension of the 
duplicate force main under Route 128 to the full 1,400 feet 
in length should be made and the existing main should be 
put in service for increased capacity and reduced head 
losses . 

Also, a plan should be developed to rehabilitate 
the station for automatic control of a modern installation 
of three electric driven pumps to handle future peak flows 
with one unit out of service. Automatic lead front electri- 
cal controls, and new screens should be included. Water- 
hammer conditions for power failure with two pumps operating 
at minimum suction level, including water column separation 
at the top of the discharge riser, should be studied to 
insure proper protective measures. 

The alternative of a new automatic electric station 
should also be studied. 

S quant urn Pumping Station 

This pumping station pumps sewage from the Squantum 
section of Quincy to the MDC High Level Sewer through a 
long force main. 

The pumping station is very old and originally 
pumped sewage to the nearby Boston Main Drainage Works. 
However, with the abandonment of Bos ton T s Moon Island 
facilities, diversion to the Nut Island Treatment Plant 
was necessary. 

The capacity of the Squantum Pumping Station will 
need to be appreciably increased to meet year 2000 needs. 
The space available for additional pumping equipment is 
extremely limited and will require the expansion of the 
present dry well portions of the structure if additional 
pumping equipment is to be properly accommodated. Given 
the age of these facilities, the limitations and condition 
of the equipment, replacement of this pumping station with 
new facilities of appropriate capacity and designed to meet 
current engineering standards would appear warranted. 
Preliminary site investigations indicate that suitable areas 
near the existing facilities are available for new construc- 
tion. 



6-24 



Costs of Recommended Improvements 

Improvement needs for each of the pumping stations 
are listed in Table 6-2. 

Estimated costs for the rehabilitation or replace- 
ment of the pumping stations are shown in Table 6-3. 



TABLE 6-3. ESTIMATED COST FOR REHABILITATION 
OR REPLACEMENT OF MDC PUMPING STATIONS 

Pumping station Work Estimated cost 

Alewife Brook Rehabilitate $ 712,000 

Braintree-Weymouth Replace 2,920,000^ 

Charlestown Replace 6,000,00(r ' 

( ?) 
East Boston Steam Replace 1,460,000 ; 

East Boston Electric Rehabilitate 365,000 

Hingham Rehabilitate 890,000 

Houghs Neck Replace 203,000 

Quincy Replace 2,220,000^ 

Reading Replace 3, 042,000^ ^ 

Squantum Replace 1,350,000 

1. Includes necessary force mains. . 

2. Based on serving East Boston only. 



Costs are based on January 1975 costs for the Boston 
area at General Construction Engineering News Record (ENR) 
cost index of 2200. 

All costs relating to the repair, rehabilitation or 
reconstruction at pumping facilities include the cost of 
materials, labor, installation, testing, engineering and 
an allowance of 50 percent for contingencies. 



6-25 



CHAPTER 7 
HEADWORKS ANALYSIS AND IMPROVEMENTS 



General 



The following existing headworks are discussed in 
detail in this chapter: 

Chelsea Creek Ward Street 

Columbus Park Winthrop Terminal Facility 

All of these facilities are of recent design and construc- 
tion. The Chelsea Creek, Columbus Park, and Ward Street 
headworks were placed in operation in 1968, and the Winthrop 
Terminal Facility was placed in operation in 1970. All of 
these facilities provide pretreatment — coarse and fine 
screening, and grit removal -- for the wastewaters dis- 
charged to the Deer Island Treatment Plant. The Chelsea 
Creek Headwork is connected to the Deer Island main pumping 
station by a deep rock tunnel approximately four miles in 
length. The Columbus Park and Ward Street headworks are 
connected to the same pumping station through a separate 
deep rock tunnel approximately seven miles long. The Win- 
throp Terminal Facility is located on the site of the Deer 
Island Treatment Plant and is designed to normally dis- 
charge wastewaters directly to the primary sedimentation 
tanks of that facility. 

Appendix G presents an inventory of major equipment 
in each of the headworks. 

Description of Facilities 

The Chelsea Creek, Columbus Park and Ward Street 
headworks contain bar racks and grit collectors for pretreat- 
ment of the wastewater before it is discharged to the Deer 
Island Treatment Plant. At each installation, the flow 
through each grit chamber is measured by a Parshall flume 
which permits velocity control in each grit chamber. The 
Columbus Park and Ward Street headworks are equipped with 
both coarse and fine bar screens. However, operating 
experience has indicated that the coarse bar screens are 
not required, and it is anticipated that they will be re- 
moved in the near future. Flow through the headworks is by 
gravity . 

Wastewater entering the V/inthrop Terminal Facility 
passes through coarse and fine bar racks and is pumped to a 



7-1 



Parshall flume, then flows by gravity through aerated grit 
chambers to the Deer Island Treatment Plant. With comple- 
tion of the installation of two 60-mgd pumps that have been 
moved from the old Deer Island Pumping Station, this facility 
has an installed pumping capacity of 180 mgd. The discharge 
piping from the two 60-mgd pumping units is designed so that 
these pumps may discharge either to the grit chambers or to 
the treatment plant bypass conduit. Flows that are dis- 
charged to the treatment plant are measured by the Parshall 
flume . 

Particulars relating to the principal equipment at 
each of the headworks is presented below: 

Chelsea Creek Headworks 

4 - Pine bar screens 12 feet-0 inches wide by 
10 feet-9 inches deep. 

8 - Grit collectors, two in each of four channels. 

8 - Inclined screw conveyors, two in each of four 
channels, 16-inch diameter, 8-inch pitch screw, 
capacity of 2 cubic yards per hour at 15 rpm 
(revolutions per minute). 

4 - Horizontal screw conveyors, one in each of four 
channels, 12-inch diameter, 12- inch pitch screw, 
capacity of 4 cubic yards per hour at 4 rpm. 

4 - Grit ejectors, pneumatically controlled, capacity 
of approximately 30 cubic feet at 100 psi (pounds 
per square inch) . 

1 - Grit storage hopper. 

Columbus Park Headworks 

4 - Coarse bar screens 8 feet-0 inches wide by 
8 feet-7 inches deep, mechanically cleaned, 
3-1/2-inch clear opening. 

4 - Fine bar screens 10 feet-6 inches wide by 

8 feet-11 inches deep, mechanically cleaned, 
3/4-inch clear opening. 

8 - Grit collectors, two in each of four channels. 

8 - Inclined screw conveyors, two in each of four 
channels, 16-inch diameter, 8-inch pitch screw, 
capacity of 2 cubic yards per hour at 15 rpm. 

7-2 



4 - Horizontal screw conveyors, one in each of four 
channels, 12-inch diameter pitch screw, capacity 
of 4 cubic yards per hour at 4 rpm. 

4 - Grit ejectors, pneumatically controlled, capacity 
of approximately 30 cubic feet at 100 psi. 

1 - Grit storage hopper. 

4 - Screenings ejectors, pneumatically controlled, 
capacity of approximately 12 cubic feet at 
100 psi. 

1 - Screening storage hopper. 

Ward Street Headworks 

4 - Coarse bar screens 8 feet-0 inches wide by 

9 feet-1 inch deep, mechanically cleaned, 3-1/2- 
inch clear opening. 

4 - Fine bar screens 10 feet-6 inches wide by 
9 feet-4 inches deep, mechanically cleaned, 
3/4-inch clear opening. 

8 - Grit collectors, two in each of four channels. 

8 - Inclined screw conveyors, two in each of four 
channels, 16-inch diameter, 8-inch pitch screw, 
capacity of 2 cubic yards per hour at 15 rpm. 

4 - Horizontal screw conveyors, one in each of four 
channels, 12-inch diameter, 12-inch pitch screw, 
capacity of 4 cubic yards per hour at 4 rpm. 

4 - Grit ejectors, pneumatically controlled, capacity 
of approximately 30 cubic feet at 100 psi. 

1 - Grit storage hopper. 

4 - Screenings ejectors, pneumatically controlled, 
capacity of approximately 12 cubic feet at 
100 psi. 

1 - Screening storage hopper. 

Winthrop Terminal Facility 

3 - Coarse bar screens 4 feet-0 inches wide by 
9 feet-6 inches deep, mechanically cleaned, 
3-1/2-inch clear opening. 

7-3 



3 - Fine bar screens 4 feet-0 inches wide by 9 feet- 

6 inches deep, mechanically cleaned, 3/4-inch 
clear opening. 

2 - Elevating grit collectors, one in each of two 
chambers . 

1 - Horizontal grit screw conveyor 9-inch diameter, 
capacity of 200 cubic feet per hour. 

1 - Screening discharge hopper, capacity of approxi- 

mately 12 cubic feet. 

4 - Electric driven, vertical nonclogging, single 

end suction, centrifugal or mixed flow-type 
pumps, each with a capacity of 10,400 gpm (gallons 
per minute) at 600 rpm against a total dynamic 
head of 30 feet. 

2 - Diesel-driven pumps, each capable of pumping 

60 mgd (presently being installed) . 

3 - Aeration blowers 75 hp, 550 rpm, each having a 

capacity of 1,700 cfm (cubic feet per minute). 

2 - Grit chamber blowers 15 hp, 900 rpm, each 
having a capacity of 100 to 270 cfm. 

2 - Ejector air compressors 25 hp, 870 rpm, two-stage, 
three-cylinder, 142-cfm piston displacement. 

Operating Data 

A summary of operational data for each of the head- 
works covering the period July 1, 1971 to June 30, 1972 is 
presented in the following table: 



7-4 



TABLE 7-1. HEADWORKS PRETREATMENT FLOW DATA 



Flows, mgd 


Chelsea 
Creek 


Columbus 
Park 


Ward 
Street 


Winthrop 
facility 


Totals 


Minimum hourly 
rate 


62 


22 


30 







Minimum 24 hours 


> 86 


55 


67 


1 




Average daily 


I46 (i: 


1 77 (1) 


101 


5 


329 


Average daily 
(Design) 


(140) 


(66) 


(113) 


(24) 


(343 


Maximum 24 
hours 


266 


150 


170 


23 




Maximum hourly 
rate 


330 


205 (1) 


280 


53 




Maximum hourly 
rate (Design) 


(350) 


(182) 


(256) 


(60) 




Total for 
year, mil gal 


53,^73 


28,098 


36,882 


1,770 


120,223 



1. Higher than design flow due to inflow, especially salt 
water inflow (see Technical Data Vol. 2). 



The inspection of the Chelsea Headworks indicated 
that the back-cleaned bar screen wiper bars need adjustment 
or redesign to provide a metal to metal shearing action to 
prevent screenings being carried over the top and washed 
off behind the screen. As estimated, 15 percent of the 
screenings bypass the bar racks in this manner. 

When visited, only one (of the four) grit chambers 
was in operation, handling a flow of 125 mgd. The estimated 
velocity in the grit chamber was in excess of one foot per 
second. The screw conveyors indicated no grit was being 
removed, but, of course, most of the grit is collected at 
times of storms. However, it was noted that the rate of 
grit removal at this location decreased from 0.76 cubic 
feet per million gallons in 1971 to 0.56 cubic feet per 
million gallons in 1972. This compares with decreases at 
the other headworks of less than 5 percent between the 
same years . 



7-5 



Rehabilitation Needs 

Since the Winthrop Terminal Facility is of very 
recent construction, this facility has no need for any 
rehabilitation work. 

All of the headworks are of modern design and are 
in conformance with sound engineering practice. However, 
due to the functions that they perform, the equipment within 
them is subjected to very abrasive action by grit and corro- 
sive action by sewage. Accordingly, it can be anticipated 
that the need for equipment repair will occur frequently, 
and correspondingly, the maintenance budget for the head- 
works should be made adequate to provide for these needs. 

Inspection of the headworks indicate that the fine 
screen cleaning mechanisms, the inclined and horizontal grit 
collectors and the grit ejectors and valves associated with 
them are in need of repair at all of the facilities. 

At all of the headworks, difficulties have been 
experienced with the pneumatic grit ejection systems because 
of rapid erosion of the discharge piping, particularly at 
bends; line stoppages, and the disposition of grit at valve 
locations. Because of the general operational difficulties 
that have been experienced with these systems, it would 
appear warranted to review the design of these facilities, 
and to determine if the piping is of suitable material for 
this type of service. Based on this review, alterations 
might be suggested which would help in minimizing the 
difficulties now experienced. 

Screenings at the Ward Street Headworks are conveyed 
pneumatically to a hopper from which the screenings are 
trucked to Deer Island for landfill disposal. Since the 
pneumatic system at Columbus Park is not used due to the 
condition of the ejectors, the screenings are bagged before 
they are trucked to Deer Island. At the Chelsea Headworks, 
the screenings are manually collected and loaded on a truck 
for disposal at Deer Island. The present operational situa- 
tion indicates that there is some need for repairs, and 
perhaps, a review of the operational procedures to determine 
the most feasible method of collecting the screenings at 
each headworks. 

Capacity Requirements 

Five conceptual plans have been investigated to 
determine the best method of providing for the future 
sewerage needs of 109 Eastern Massachusetts Metropolitan 



7-6 



Area communities. However, interceptor, pumping station 
and headworks improvement requirements are identical in 
Concepts 4 and 5. Under these concepts, the existing limits 
of the Deer Island service area will be either expanded 
slightly or undergo varying degrees of contraction. 
Correspondingly, the total service area tributary to the 
headworks vary. Therefore, the total future design capacity 
requirements for the headworks vary depending on the con- 
ceptual plan under consideration. 

Table 7-2 sets forth for each of the headworks the 
present design capacity of the facility and for each con- 
ceptual plan the estimated capacity requirements for 2000. 
The capacity requirements are based on peak dry weather 
flows that are expected to occur by 2000. 

It is to be noted that the estimated peak 2000 dry 
weather flows presented in Table 7-2 for the Columbus Park 
Headworks and the Winthrop Terminal Facility remain constant 
under all conceptual plans because the tributary areas to 
these facilities do not vary. The estimated peak 2000 dry 
weather flows do vary in the case of the Chelsea Creek and 
Ward Street headworks, and are at a maximum under Concepts 
1 and 3. 

Under the Recommended Plan, flows tributary to the 
headworks facilities are similar to those under Concepts 1 
and 3 as shown. 

Comparison of the design capacity of each headworks 
with the estimated 2000 capacity requirements indicates 
that each headworks, with the exception of Ward Street, has 
sufficient design capacity to handle estimated 2000 peak dry 
weather flows. Although the design capacity of the Ward 
Street Headworks is given as 256 mgd, this facility has been 
reported to have operated satisfactorily at rates of flow up 
to 285 mgd. Based on this operational experience, the Ward 
Street Headworks appears to have sufficient capacity for 
the projected year 2000 needs. 

The estimated 2000 peak flows given in Table 7-2 for 
the Winthrop Terminal Facility assumes that the service 
area for that facility will be limited to Winthrop, Orient 
Heights, and East Boston. However, as noted in the previous 
chapter, at times an excess of 100 mgd may be diverted to 
this facility from the Chelsea Headworks through the East 
Boston Steam or Electric pumping stations. At such times, 
the Winthrop Terminal Facility would be required to handle 
flows up to the reported capacity of the North Metropolitan 
Trunk Sewer or on the order of 10 to 125 mgd. With the 
two 60-mgd pumps now being installed, there will be suffi- 
cient pumping capacity to handle flows of this magnitude, 
with the largest pumping unit out of service. The grit 

7-7 



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7-8 



chambers, which have a design capacity of approximately 
60 mgd, are located downstream of the pumping station and 
are not designed to handle the total installed capacity of 
the pumping facility. This is because it is planned to 
divert, after pumping, any excess flow beyond 60 mgd to the 
bypass conduit rather than routing any excess flow through 
the grit chambers and the treatment plant. It is doubtful 
that bypassing of excess flow wastewaters will be acceptable 
to the regulatory agencies. For short-range planning, grit 
removal and chlorination treatment facilities should be 
provided for any excess flows. For long-range planning, 
consideration should be given to routing all flows from the 
Winthrop Terminal Facility to the Deer Island Treatment 
Plant when the treatment plant is expanded to meet future 
needs. These recommendations are contingent on the fact 
that future studies will indicate that diversion of excess 
flows to the Winthrop Terminal Facility from the Chelsea 
Headworks through the East Boston Pumping Stations and the 
North Metropolitan Trunk Sewer is recommended. 

Although each of the headworks is estimated to have 
sufficient capacity to meet 200 peak dry weather flow 
needs, under present conditions they do not have sufficient 
capacity to handle peak inflows. This is because they all 
receive large quantities of storm inflow since they serve 
extensive combined sewered areas. The situation at some of 
the headworks is further aggravated by the saltwater inflow 
that is received due to faulty operating tide gates. How- 
ever, this situation is now being corrected through a tide 
gate repair and replacement program which is discussed in 
Technical Data Vol. 2. 

Presently, excess flows tributary to the Ward Street 
and Columbus Park headworks up to the capacity of the exist- 
ing systems back up in the Charles River Valley Sewer or in 
the Columbus Park connection to Boston's Dorchester Inter- 
ceptor. At such times, the excess flow in the Charles River 
Valley Sewer up to the capacity of the existing system is 
diverted to the B.U. storm detention and chlorination sta- 
tion temporary storage or for treatment before discharge to 
the Charles River. When the depth of flow in the Columbus 
Park Headworks connection reaches an excessive level, the 
Calf Pasture Pumping Station is placed in operation and 
excess flow up to its capacity is diverted to a 
large sewer and thence to the Moon Island tanks by gravity. 
At Moon Island, these flows are intended to be stored and 
discharged only during the outgoing tide. As previously 
noted, excess flows at the Chelsea Creek Headworks up to 
the capacity of the North Metropolitan Trunk Sewer are 
diverted to the Winthrop Terminal Facility. Inflows to 



7-9 



the various sewers beyond the capacity of the above 
systems overflow into various receiving waters through the 
numerous combined sewer overflows as discussed in Technical 
Data Vol. 7. 

It would be very costly to increase the capacity of 
the headworks to provide for peak storm inflows. This is 
because the headworks, tunnels and the Deer Island Treatment 
Plant into which they discharge have been designed to 
operate integrally, handling only flows slightly greater 
than peak dry weather flows. To increase the design capacity 
of the headworks for all inflows would require a large 
increase in capacity of the tunnels which serve them. 
Furthermore, it is not likely that elimination of inflows 
by complete separation of the combined systems that are 
served by the headworks will be economically and environ- 
mentally justifiable. For these reasons, it would seem pru- 
dent to continue the present mode of operation of these 
facilities at times of storm inflow until combined sewer 
overflow regulation plans are implemented. However, the 
existing facilities of the Calf Pasture Pumping Station 
should be upgraded to provide modern mechanically cleaned 
racks and grit chambers ahead of the pumping station, and 
the storage tanks at Moon Island should be equipped with 
skimming and chlorination facilities. The Winthrop facility 
should also be upgraded to provide facilities that will 
permit degritting and disinfection of all flows that pass 
through that facility, if studies indicate that excess flows 
should be diverted to that facility. 

For long-range planning, excess flows should be 
handled as part of the overall combined sewer overflow 
regulation plan. 

Costs of Recommended Improvements 

Since all of the headworks facilities are new and 
their recommended improvements are not large in scope, 
estimated costs for the necessary repairs at the headworks 
facilities have not been determined as it is felt that 
detailed in-depth engineering analyses are required before 
any specific recommendations and estimates can be made. 
Many of the minor repairs required by the existing equip- 
ment can in all probability be rectified by expansion of the 
maintenance budget. Specific work item costs can only be 
identified by a detailed engineering analysis. 



7-10 



APPENDIX A 
INTERCEPTOR DATA 



APPENDIX A 
INTERCEPTOR DATA 



In connection with the analysis of the MDC inter- 
ceptor system for adequacy, the physical properties of each 
section of the interceptor system were collected from MDC 
files and construction drawings. Any modifications to the 
interceptor system that were made after they were originally 
built were also obtained. Table A-l lists all pertinent 
interceptor data for the North Metropolitan Sewerage System 
tributary to the Deer Island Treatment Plant. Table A-2 
lists all pertinent interceptor data for the South Metro- 
politan Sewerage System contributing flow to the Nut Island 
Treatment Plant. Table A-3 explains the abbreviations used 
in Tables A-l and A-2 relating to community and interceptor 
names . 

Tables A-l and A-2 are arranged in accordance with 
MDC sewer section numbers for easy reference and retrieval 
of any additional data from MDC files which are arranged 
on a similar basis. These tables show for each sewer 
segment the MDC section number; the community in which it is 
located; its stations and inverts; its size, s, oe, length, 
slope and area; and its selected Manning 1 s friction factor 
along with its capacity both in cubic feet per second and 
million gallons per day. 

For the location of each of those sewers and their 
names, see Figure 2-2. 



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3. ABE 


. - 




m i 


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Mil A-2 




ABC 


Alewife Brook 


lit 


sr 


rr'har: 


ARL 


Arlington 




nef val 


Neponset Valley 


BLM 


Belmont 




NEW 


Newton 


BOS 


Bos ton 




■ - 


Norwood 


BRA 


Braintree 




NS 


New Section Over Old 


BRI 


Brighton 




CS 


Old Section 


BRO 


Brookline 




:.": 


Quincy 


CAM 


Cambridge 






Randolph 


ca:; 


Canton 




RE/ 


Reading 


CHA 


Charles town 




REV 


Revere 


CRC 


Charles River 


Cross: ng 


RAVE 


Rindge Avenue 


r u - 
•^ i 


Chelsea 




?,: 


Ro xb ury 


DED 


Dedhairi 




sc 


Some rvi lie 


DI 


Deer Island 




SHM 


St one hair 


DOV 


Dover 




STC 


Stoughton 


DOR 


T'crchester 




WAK 


Wakef ield 


EE 


East Boston 




~_7 


Walpole 


EVE 


Everett 




WA1 


Waltham 


??_; 


Framingham 




WAT 


Watertown 


KP 


Hyde Park 




' FRO 


West Roxbury 


LEX 


Lexington 




WEL 


We lies ley 


MAL 


Maiden 




WEY 


Weymouth 


MFE 


Medford 




WIL 


lmingt an 


MEL 


I'elrose 




WIN 


Winchester 


MVS 


stic Valley 


Sewer 


WTi 


Winthrop 


::r:" 


Milton 




WOB 


Web urn 


mtn co:; 


Milton Z^r.r.ec 


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NAT 


Natick 









: - c 



APPENDIX B 
INTERCEPTOR MODELING PACKAGES 



APPENDIX B 
INTERCEPTOR MODELING PACKAGES 



For the purpose of computer modeling the MDC inter- 
ceptor systems, all the interceptors are divided into 61 
groups. These groups are arranged in such a way as to 
represent the system as it presently functions (1975). Each 
of these groups are called modeling packages. The North 
Metropolitan Sewerage System consists of 45 modeling 
packages and the South Metropolitan Sewerage System is 
divided into 16 modeling packages. Table B-l lists the 
modeling packages and the interceptors that are included 
in each of these packages. 



TABLE B-l. INDEX OF INTERCEPTOR MODELING PACKAGES 



Model 

package 

No. 



Interceptor names and section 

numbers include d System 



N-l 



N-2 



N-3 



N-4 



N-5 



N-6 



North Metropolitan Sewer 
(Sections 2-9) 

North Metropolitan Sewer 
(Sections 12, 14-20, 21 
portion) 

North Metropolitan Sewer 
(Section 21 portion) 

Alewife Brock Sewer 
(Sections 43-1/2, 43) 

North Metropolitan Sewer 
(Sections 22 portion) 

Mi lb rook Valley Sewer 
(Sections 77-80 and 
82-85) 

North Metropolitan Sewer 
(Sections 22 portion, 
44-1/2, 45-46) 

North Metropolitan Relief 
Sewer (Sections 102-108) 



North 

North 
North 
North 
North 

North 

North 
North 



B-l 



TABLE B-l (Continued). INDEX OF INTERCEPTOR MODELING 

PACKAGES 



Model 

package 

No. 



Interceptor names and section 

numbers included System 



N-7 

N-8 

N-9 
N-10 

N-ll 

N-12 

N-13 

N-14 
N-15 

N-lc 
M-17 

N-18 



N-19 



N-20 



North Metropolitan Relief 
Sewer (Sections 111-114, 
115A, 11 5B) 

New Mystic Valley Sewer 
(Sections 109-110, 67-70) 

Reading Extension Sewer 
(Sections 71-76) 

Wilmington Extension Sewer 
(Sections 88-90) 

Mystic Valley Sewer 

Cummingsville Branch Sewer 
(Section 47) 

Cummingsville Branch Relief 
Sewer (Section 86) 

Alewife Brook Conduit 

Lexington Branch Sewer 
(Sections 52-53) 

Mile rook Valley Relief 
Sewer (Sections 91A, 91B, 
92-93) 

Wakefield Branch Relief 
Sewer (Sections 87, 64, 
58-60) 

Wakefield Trunk Sewer 
(Section 40 portion) 

Maiden Branch Relief Sewer 
(Section 95) 

Maiden Branch Sewer 
(Sections 54-55) 

Maiden Branch Sewer 
(Sections 65-66) 



North 

North 

North 

North 
North 

North 

North 
North 

North 

North 

North 
North 



North 



North 



B-2 



TABLE B-l (Continued). INDEX OF INTERCEPTOR MODEL 

PACKAGES 



Model 

package 

No. 



Interceptor names and section 

numbers included System 



N-21 



N-22 
N-23 
H-24 

N-25 
N-26 
N-27 
N-28 
N-29 

N- 30 
N-31 
N-32 



Maiden Branch Relief Sewer 
(Section 95A) 

Wakefield Trunk Sewer 
(Sections 40 portion 
and 41) 

Stoneham Trunk Sewer 
(Section 42) 

Wakefield Branch Sewer 
(Sections 49-50.) 

Stoneham Extension Sewer 
(Section 51) 

Chelsea Branch Sewer 
(Sections 11, 56-57) 

Revere Branch Sewer 
(Sections 61-62) 

Revere Branch Sewer 
(Section 57A) 

South Charles Sewer 
(Sections A-H) 

South Charles Relief Sewer 
(Sections 5> 1-4, and 4A ) 

North Charles Relief Sewer 
(Sections CRC, 204, 207A 
and 207B) 

North Charles Metropolitan 
Sewer (Sections 29-30, 63) 

North Charles Metropolitan 
Sewer (Section 209) 

Cambridge Branch Sewer 
(Sections 23-25, 25-1/2, 
26-28) 



North 



North 
North 
North 
North 
North 
North 
North 

North 
North 
North 

North 



B-3 



table B-i (Continued). b:;bbx C7 b:;tbr:b?b:b :::rzi::::- 

bacbagbs 



Model 
package 
Kg . 



Interceptor nar.es and section 

numbers included System 



N-33 
N-34 

N-35 

N-36 

::-3 7 

M-3S 

N-iJO 

H-41 

V.--2 

::--: 

- 
-• — 



Charles town Branch Sewer 
(Sections 31-32) 

Somerville-Medford Branch 
Sewer (Section 35) 

East Boston Branch Sewer 
(Sections 37-1/2, 37, 38 
portion) 

las:; Boston Branch Sewer 
(Section 38 portion) 

last Boston Branch Sewer 
[Section 39) 

Alswife Brook Conduit 
Belmont Branch 

Belmont Branch Sewer 
^ie^ticn 8l) 

Bryant Street Bast 
. r - :er, Maiden 

Bryant Street last 
£e er, Xalder. 

Bast Hester. Br.tercecter 
.tier. 38BR) 

Za^t Be s ten Interceptor 
Se 3tion 393R) 

Bast Boston Interceptor 
[Section 36) 

Dorchester Interceptor 

anset "alley Sewer 
actions 9-1-, 15 tcrticn: 



rth 

North 

::crth 

North 

North 

North 

North 

North 

North 

:;crth 

. . rth 

Berth 
Berth 



B-il 



TABLE B-l (Continued). INDEX OF INTERCEPTOR MODELING 

PACKAGES 



Model 

package 

No. 



Interceptor names and section 

numbers included System 



S-l 
S-2 

S-3 
S-4 



S-5 
S-6 
S-7 



S-8 
S-9 

S-10 
S-ll 
S-12 



High Level Sewer 

(Sections 45-68) South 

High Level Sewer 

(Sections 69-75) South 

Brighton Branch Sewer 

(Sections 80-87) South 

Braintree-Weymouth Extension 

Sewer (Sections 122-125) South 

Braintree-Randolph Extension 

Sewer (Sections 126-128) South 

Braintree-Randolph Extension 

Sewer (Sections 128-128A) South 

Braintree Connection 

(Section 125 BR) South 

New Neponset Valley Sewer 

(Sections 107-115) South 

Stoughton Extension Sewer 

(Sections 119-121) South 

Hyde Park Connection 

(Section 3D South 

Dedham Connection 

(Section 32) South 

Westwood Extension Sewer 

(Sections 135-136) South 

Walpole Extension Sewer 

(Sections 116-118) South 

Upper Neponset Valley Sewer 

(Sections 15 portion, 16-29) South 



B-5 



TABLE B-l (Continued). INDEX OF INTERCEPTOR MODELING 

PACKAGES 

Model 

package Interceptor names and section 

No . numbers included System 

S-13 Upper Neponset Valley Sewer 

(Section 30) South 

S-14 Wellesley Extension Sewer 

(Section 98-106) South 

S-15 Wellesley Extension Relief Sewer 

(Sections 137A-131) South 

S-16 Framingham Extension Sewer 

(Sections 132-134) South 



These packages are on file at The Metropolitan 
District Commission. 



B-6 



APPENDIX C 
INTERCEPTOR ANALYSIS PROGRAM INSTRUCTIONS 



APPENDIX C 
INTERCEPTOR ANALYSIS PROGRAM INSTRUCTIONS 



This appendix presents the user instructions for the 
computer program used in modeling the MDC interceptor system, 
Described here is the Metcalf & Eddy PHP PROGRAM (as 
modified for MDC and called PHPA) . 

General 

Name: PHPA . The program PHPA presented here is a 
modified version of Metcalf & Eddy Plant Hydraulics Profile 
Program (PHP). The original program was modified to remove 
sections not applicable for modeling the MDC interceptors. 

Description . The program PHPA is designed to com- 
pute losses through hydraulic elements in sewers and treat- 
ment plants and thereby determine their hydraulic profile. 
PHPA consists of a SUPERVISOR PROGRAM, two main programs 
PHPO and PHP1, and a number of subprograms. The SUPERVISOR 
PROGRAM determines whether to use PHPO or PHP1 based on 
whether the flow is subcritical or supercritical. Each 
program identifies the type of element through which flow is 
currently passing and then calls appropriate subprograms to 
do the required computations. In this way, each main 
program, starting with an initial hydraulic grade line, 
calculates losses and flow properties through each succes- 
sive element. PHPO does all computations in a downstream 
to upstream sequence for subcritical flow and PHP1 performs 
all computations in an upstream to downstream sequence for 
supercritical flow. During computation the program checks 
the flow condition in each sewer section and identifies 
whether the flow is subcritical or supercritical. 

Purpos e . The program is used as a tool for the 
hydraulic analysis of water and wastewater treatment plants, 
sewer and interceptor networks, etc. It can be used to 
determine those pipes in an interceptor network that are 
inadequate to transport the peak design flows and to examine 
the conditions in a sewer system under alternative pipe 
replacement or relief strategies for remedial action. 

Capabilities and Features . Program PHPA can be 
used to compute water surface profiles or hydraulic grade 
lines for a system consisting of any combination of the 
following elements: 



C-l 



1. Bar Screens (Five Types). 

2. Bends (Pipes or conduits flowing full or part 
full). 

3. Contractions and Expansions (Pipe, conduit or 
open channel) . 

Jl. Pipes, conduits, or open channel outfalls.. 

5. Pipe, conduit or open channel segments. 

6. Unit operation (such as comminutors , pumps, 
flow measuring devices, etc.). 

7 . Grit chambers . 

8. Chlorine chambers. 

9. Siphons. 

The program is independent of the sequence of the various 
elements listed above. In addition, the same element may 
occur in the flow path repeatedly. There are also many 
options available to the user. For details, please refer 
to the user instructions. 

Restrictions and Limitations . This modified ver- 
sion of PHP fs restricted in its use mostly to components 
encountered in the MDC interceptor system. 

The program requires knowledge of the flow in each 
section in order to compute the hydraulic conditions of 
an interceptor system. Therefore, in the case of parallel 
pipes, the division of flow must be estimated initially and 
corrected by trial runs. 

User Instructions 

Program Processing . Program PHPA consists of a 
number of subroutines each of which is developed to do cer- 
tain computations. For subcritical flow the flow profile 
computations usually start at an outfall and proceed up- 
stream. However, the computation can be started at any 
place in a flow path where the water surface is known or 
can be computed. For supercritical flow the computations 
usually start at a critical section and proceed downstream. 
In general, every element in the flow path requires two data 
cards describing the properties of the particular element. 
For the inverted siphon, three data cards are required. In 



C-2 



some cases a third card may be required or used to read in 
downstream flow properties. 

Logistics . Program PHPA will run on a machine as 
small as IBM 1130 with 8K storage. 

Input Data Requirements . Input data requirements 
for program PHP are given in Table C-l. In general, two 
data cards are required for each element in the flow path. 
The program usually uses for downstream cross-sectional 
properties the upstream cross-sectional properties of the 
previous element in the flow path as these are the same 
when traveling from downstream to upstream direction. In 
some cases these two cross-sections are not the same, and, 
therefore, new cross-sectional properties for the downstream 
section are necessary. The program reads in new cross- 
sectional properties for the downstream section of the 
particular element when the user sets indicator KTYPE equal 
to any positive integer. A listing of a PHPA input data is 
presented in Table D-2 as an example. 

Error Correction and Resubmission . If there are 
any errors in the computation they will be due to input 
data errors. Therefore, it is desirable to get a listing 
of the input data and check it thoroughly before submitting 
for a run . 

Interpretation of Results . The results of the 
PHPA run are self-explanatory. Each particular output is 
identified clearly. An example of PHPA output is presented 
in Table D-3. 

Documentation of Technical Concepts 

Program PHPA consists of a number of subroutines each 
of which is developed to compute loss through a flow element. 
Theoretical basis of the loss computation in each case is 
presented here. 

Theory . Bar Screen losses. The energy loss for 
flow through bar screens depends upon the shape, size, and 
spacing of the bars and the velocity of flow. Head loss 
n bar can be expressed as: 

h bar = KYl 
2g 



C-3 



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C-15 



Where, bar ■ head loss in feet. 

V * approach velocity before 
the bar screen, ft /sec. 

K - head loss coefficient. 

The head loss coefficient K is a function of the 
ratio of area of bars to area of flow cross-section and the 
shape of the bars. Loss coefficients for various shapes of 
bars have been determined experimentally and are presented 
in Hydraulic Design Criteria Design Chart 010-7, Corps of 
Engineers*. 

Design chart 010-7 presents loss coefficient curves 
for six types of bar screens. Third order polynomial 
equations for loss coefficients were fitted through each of 
these curves and are used in the program. These equations 
are given below: 

K = 0.83 1 * A r + 3.900 A^ + 6.920 A^ For Type 1 

K = 0.760 A r + 1.689 A^ + 7.340 A^ For Type 2 

K = 0.031 A r + 6.800 A^ + 0.514 A^ For Type 3 

K - 0.209 A r + 4.790 A^ + 1.910 A^ For Type 4 

K = -0.0895 A r + 3.266 A^ - .869 A^ For Type 5 

K = 0.668 A r - 2.081 A^ + 8.496 A^ For Type 6 

In the above equations K is the loss coefficient and A r is 
the ratio of area of bars to total area of cross-section. 

The Bar Screen subroutine uses the loss coefficients 
calculated from the appropriate equation above. The user 
can use the coefficients determined by the program or can 
use his own coefficients. If the user leaves the input 
field for bar loss coefficient blank, the program will 
calculate the appropriate loss coefficient. However, if 
the user puts in a value for loss coefficient that value 
will be used by the program. 



*Corps of Engineers -Hydraulic Design Criteria, U.S. Army 
Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, Mississippi. 



C-16 



Bend losses. Head loss in pipe, conduit, and open 
channel bends can be expressed* as: 

h bend = K. V 2 
b 2g 

Where bend = head loss in bend, ft. 

V = average velocity in the bend, ft/sec. 



K, = bend loss coefficient, 
b 

The coefficient Kfo is a function of the type of 
bend (e.g., miter bends, long radius bends, short radius 
bends, etc.) and also the type of flow such as open channel 
or closed conduit. A loss coefficient K^ ■ 1.10 is used 
in the computer program assuming that the bend is a miter 
bend (abrupt bend). For bends other than miter bends the 
user has to choose the correct loss coefficient. Curves 
for bend loss coefficients for different types of bends 
have been developed from experimental data and are presented 
in design charts 228-1, 228-2, 228-2/1 of the Corps of 
Engineers Hydraulic Design Criteria**. These charts may 
be used as a guide to determine the appropriate bend loss 
coefficients . 

Closed Conduit Contraction. Head loss in contrac- 
tions from closed conduit to closed conduit or from open 
channel to closed conduit flows can be expressed*** as: 

H = (1 - l) 2 vl = EL 2 
L C c 2g 2g 

Where, H, = head loss due to contraction, ft. 

C = coefficient of contraction 
c 

V = velocity in the smaller of the two 
conduits or the larger of the two 
velocities, ft/sec. 



•"Steady Flow in Pipes and Conduits", V.L. Streeter, Ch . 
IV. Engineering Hydraulics, Ed. H. Rouse, pp. 413-^15. 
**Corps of Engineers - Hydraulic Design Criteria, U.S. 

Army Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, Mississippi. 
***King, H.W., & Brater, E.F., "Handbook of Hydraulics" 
pp. 8-31 (fifth ed.). 



C-17 



K ■ lose coefficient for contraction 

g = acceleration due to gravity, ft/sec. 

The computer program can supply appropriate loss 
coefficients or the user may decide to use his own loss 
coefficient for contraction. If the user decides not to 
use his own loss coefficient, the field for loss coeffi- 
cient on the input data card should be left blank. The 
program will then calculate the appropriate loss coeffi- 
cient based on the ratio of the areas of the two conduits. 
The loss coefficients are calculated from the following 
table.* 

COEFFICIENTS FOR SUDDEN CONTRACTION 



A 2 /A- 0.0 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 

K 0.50 0.48 0.45 0.41 0.36 0.29 0.21 0.13 

A 2 /A x 0.80 0.90 1.00 

K 0.07 0.01 0.00 



If the loss coefficient computed from the above table 
comes out to be less than 0.10, the program uses a contrac- 
tion loss coefficient of 0.10. 

Open Channel Contraction. The expression for head 
loss computation in open channel contraction can be written** 
as: 

H L = K c (V 2 " V l 2) 



2g 2g 
Where, H T = head loss in feet. 

Li 



K = contraction loss coefficient for open 
channel flow 



""Steady Flow in Pipes and Conduits", V.L. Streeter, 
Ch. VI, Engineering Hydraulics, H. Rouse, Ed., pp. 413- 
415. 
**Channel Transitions and Controls, A. T. Ippen. Ch. VIII, 
Engineering Hydraulics, H. Rouse, Ed., pp. 514-519. 



C-18 



V p = velocity in smaller channel, ft/sec. 

V- = velocity in larger channel, ft/sec. 

g = acceleration due to gravity, ft/sec. 

In the case of open channel contraction, the user has 
to supply his own loss coefficient or else the program 
assumes that the open channel contraction is abrupt, and, 
therefore, uses the abrupt contraction coefficient of 0.50. 
For gradual open channel contracting loss coefficients the 
user is referred to open channel hydraulics by V. T. Chow. 

Closed Conduit Expansion. Head loss in expansion 
from closed conduit to closed conduit or from closed con- 
duit to open channel can be expressed* as follows: 

H L = V l ~ V 2 = (1 " A l )2 V l = K V l 
2g A^ 2g 2g 

Where, H, = head loss in feet. 

V" 1 = velocity in smaller conduit ft/sec. 

V ? = velocity in larger conduit l /sec. 

2 
A.. = area of smaller conduit ft. 

2 
Ap = area of larger conduit ft. 

K = expansion loss efficient. 

The program will calculate an appropriate loss 
coefficient if the user leaves the input data field for 
expansion loss coefficient blank using the following 
table: 



A-j/Ap 


0.00 


0.10 


0.20 


0.30 


0.40 


0.50 


K 


1.00 


0.81 


.64 


0.49 


0.36 


0.25 


A 1 /A 2 


0.60 


0.70 


0.80 


0.90 


1.00 




K 


0.16 


0.09 


0.04 


0.01 


0.00 



















"Steady Flow in Pipes and Conduits, V. L. Streeter, Ch. VI, 
Engineering Hydraulics, H. Rouse, Ed., pp. 413-415. 



C-19 



If the loss coefficient computed from the above table 
is less than 0.20, the computer program uses for design 
purposes a minimum value of 0.20. Optionally the user may 
choose his own value. 

Open Channel Expansion. The head loss in open 
channel enlargements or expansions can be expressed*,** as 
follows: 

H L = K e ^l " V 2> 
2g 2g 

Where, H T = Head loss, ft. 

K ■ Expansion loss coefficient 
e 

V. = Velocity in the smaller section, 
1 ft/sec. 

V ? = Velocity in the larger section, 
ft/sec. 

2 
g = Acceleration due to gravity, ft/sec. 

The user must choose an expansion coefficient or else 
the program will assume that the expansion is abrupt and, 
therefore, will use a loss coefficient of 1.00 for sudden 
expansion. For gradual open channel expansion the user is 
referred to open channel hydraulics by V. T. Chow. 

Pipe, Conduit, and Open Channel Outfalls. In the 
case of an outfall the program assumes that the velocity 
head, V 2 /2g, of the flow is lost entirely when the flow 
leaves the pipe, conduit or open channel. Also, it is 
assumed that the flow velocity below the outfall is zero. 
Thus, the energy relation above and below the outfall can 
be written as: 

E l = E 2 + h e 
h e = V 2/2g 



"King, H. W. & Brater, E. F., "Handbook of Hydraulics", 
pp. 8-31 Fifth Ed. 
**Hinds, J., "The Hydraulic Design of Flume and Siphon 
Transition, Trans, ASCE, Vol. 92, 1928. 



C-20 



or Z 1 + Y 1 + V^ = Z 2 + Y 2 + V^ 
Tg 2g 

or Z- + Y 1 = Z 2 + Y 2 = HGL 2 

Where, 

E, = Energy grade line above outfall, ft. 

Ep = Energy grade line below outfall, ft. 

h = Head loss in outfall, ft. 
e 

Z n = Invert elevation above outfall, ft. 

Zp = Invert elevation below outfall, ft. 

Y. = Depth of flow above outfall, ft. 

Y = Depth of flow below outfall, ft. 

V. ■ Velocity above outfall, fps. 

HGL 2 = Hydraulic Grade Line below outfall, ft. 

The hydraulic grade line below the outfall is known. The 
depth of flow above the outfall on then calculated directly. 
However, if there is a discontinuity in the hydraulic profile 
due to a drop then the above relation would not be applicable. 
In such a case, the depth of flow above the outfall would be 
equal to the critical depth in the pipe, conduit or channel 
for that flow. The program, therefore, checks to see 
whether there is any discontinuity in the hydraulic profile 
and calculates the correct depth of flow. The velocity of 
flow is calculated from the continuity equation (A-.V, = Q), 
where Q is the discharge in cfs. 



C-21 



Head Loss in Pipes, Conduits, and Channels. Head loss 
in a pipe, conduit, or channel segment of length AX is com- 
puted on the basis of the energy relation between the two 
ends of the segment. The energy relation can be written as 
follows: 

E l = E 2 + S f AX (1) 

where, 

E, = Energy at the upstream section, ft. 

Ep = Energy at the downstream section, ft. 

S f AX = Head loss in the segment, AX 

S f = Average friction slope, ft/ft. 

also , 

(2) 
(3) 

(4) 
2.22 IT' J 
where, 

Z, = Invert elevation at section 1, ft. 

Zp = Invert elevation at section 2, ft. 

Y 1 = Depth of flow at section 1 , f t . 

Yp = Depth of flow at section 2, ft. 

cu = Energy coefficient at section 1 

ctp ■ Energy coefficient at section 2 

V, = Mean velocity at section 1, f ps . 

Vp ■ Mean velocity at section 2, fps. 

? - (V 1 + V 2 )/2 * Average velocity, fps. 

R ■ (R, + Rp)/2 = Average hydraulic radius, ft. 

C-22 



E l = z l + Y l + a l 


2g 


E 2 = Zp + Yp + a 2 


V 2 
v 2 

2g 


2-2 

-4/3 





FL = Hydraulic radius at section 1, ft. 

R p = Hydraulic radius at section 2, ft. 

n = Manning's Coefficient 

Introducing (2), (3), and (4) in (1). 

P 2 

Z, + Y. + a, 1 V l = Z, + Y, + a- V 2 + n 2 V 2 AX (5) 

Equation (5) is solved by successive trials together 
with the continuity equation (A-,V, = A 2 Vp). In the PHP 
program, the Newton-Raphson successive iteration technique 
is employed to solve for Y, and V, when Y^, and V" 2 are 
known for the downstream section. 

In case of Pipes and Conduits flowing full, flow 
properties at either end of the segment are known and the 
solution of equation (5) can be obtained directly. 

Unit Operations. Head losses through flow measuring 
devices, comminutors, etc., and head additions for pumps on 
the flow path are computed by the unit operations by using 
the following functional relation: 



H L = RH L (Q/Q R ) 2 (1) 



Where, 



H T = Head loss or addition in ft. for discharge Q 

RH L ■ Rated head loss or addition in ft. for the 
rated discharge Q R . 

Q = Actual discharge, cfs. 

Q R = Rated discharge, cfs. 

In case of pumps on flow line RH T becomes negative 
and, therefore, H, also become negative. 

Grit Chambers and Chlorine Chambers. Head loss and 
hydraulic profile computations for grit chambers and 
chlorine chambers are done as open channel segments, details 
of which are presented under Section 8. 

Siphons. Head loss h, s /in an inverted siphon is 
calculated as follows: 



C-23 



h = n 2 v 2 L . . V 2 

Where, 

n - Manning's coefficient 

h T = Total of entrance and exit loss coefficients 

Li 

L = Length of siphon pipe, ft. 

R = Hydraulic radius, ft. 

V ■ Velocity in siphon pipe, fps. 

The energy relation between the downstream and 
upstream of the siphon is given as: 

E l " E 2 + h es 

or, Z x + Y 1 + V* - Z 2 + Y 2 + v| + h Ls 

2g 2g 

Equation above is solved together with continuity 
equation by trial to determine Y.. and V. . 

When there are more than one siphon pipes in 
parallel first the distribution of flow between the pipes 
are determined by the requirement that the head loss through 
each siphon pipe will be the same. For details of flow 
distribution between parallel pipes the user is referred 
to Fluid Mechanics by V. L. Streeter. 

Program Listing 

A listing of the PHPA Program is on file at the 
Metropolitan District Commission. 



C-24 



APPENDIX D 
INTERCEPTOR MODELING EXAMPLE AND RESULTS 



APPENDIX D 
INTERCEPTOR MODELING EXAMPLE AND RESULTS 



An example of interceptor modeling is presented in 
this appendix to illustrate the application of the instruc- 
tions presented in Appendix C to an actual problem. For 
purposes of this example Sections 132 and 133B of the 
South Metropolitan System were selected (see Interceptor 
Modeling* Package No. S-16 in Appendix B). 

Table D-l presents data pertaining to the physical 
system (extracted from Appendix A) used in the example 
problem. The capacities of each interceptor section as 
shown in this table were obtained from the computer analysis 
output presented in Table D-3. 

Table D-2 presents the data shown in Table D-l in the 
format in which it must be coded for input to the computer 
program. This was done in accordance with the user instruc- 
tions as presented in Appendix C. The user instruction 
card designations are given along the right side of Table D-2 
to permit easy review of the example. 

The results of the computer run which are presented 
in Table D-3 reflect the actual flow conditions that occur 
within 'the existing physical system based on present peak 
flows as calculated during the flow quantification analysis 
(See Technical Data Vol. 2). This data is used to determine 
whether relief of the existing system is required. If such 
is found to be the case, relief pipes are sized based on the 
difference between peak design flow and system capacity. In 
this particular case, the hydraulic grade line (El 211.2*0 
at station 5+87.00 in Section 132 is shown above the crown 
of the pipe (El 209.92), thus indicating that the sewer is 
surcharged and that relief is required. 

The input data, card listings and results of the 
computer analysis for the North and South MSD systems are 
not contained within this report, but are on file with the 

Metropolitan District Commission. 



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D-20 



APPENDIX E 

PUMPING STATION AND HEADWORKS 
INVENTORY ABBREVIATIONS 

NOTE : This appendix to Techni- 
cal Data Vol. 9 has not been 
included in all copies of the 
report due to the nature and 
length of its content. However, 
in order to acquaint the reader 
with its content the first sheet 
of the abbreviation is included. 
A copy of the abbreviations and 
inventories is available for 
review at the Metropolitan 
District Commission, 20 Somerset 
Street, Boston, Mass. 



APPENDIX E 

PUMPING STATION AND HEADWORKS 
INVENTORY ABBREVIATIONS 



The following abbreviations were used during the 
inventory of the pumping station and headworks facilities 
and appear in Appendixes F and G. 



E-l 



INVENTORY ABBREVIATIONS 



A. Amperes or Amber (Indicating light). 

AGMA. American Gear Manufacturers Association 

Amb. Ambient (temperature) 

Arm. Armature 

Auto. Automatic 



BI1P. Boiler horsepower 



C. Centigrade (temperature) 
CFM. Cubic Feet per Minute 
Cont. Continuous 



Des. Design 

j)ia. Diameter 

Diff . Differential 

Disc. Disconnect 

DP. Discharge pressure 

DP. Dripproof (Motor Enclosure) 

Dwg . Drawing 



Elev 
Exp. 



Elevation 
Explosion 



Ft. 
Fwd. 



Feet 
Forward 



E-2 



APPENDIX F 

PUMPING STATION INVENTORY 

NOTE : This appendix to Techni- 
cal Data Vol. 9 has not been 
included in all copies of the 
report due to the nature and 
length of its content. However, 
in order to acquaint the reader 
with its content the first sheet 
of the inventory is included. 
A copy of the inventory is avail- 
able for review at the Metro- 
politan District Commission, 
20 Somerset Street, Boston, 
Mass . 



ALEWIFE BROOK PUMPING STATION 



Alewife Brook Pumping Station 
Power Distribution System 

Location First floor 

Power Supply From substation in rear of building 

Boston 
From Edison Co. Voltage 4,160 Ph ase 3 

from tv/o sources through an automatic transfer switch to the 
Pov/er Transformers Quantity 2 Voltage '»60 KVA 225 

Manufacturer V/estinghouse Taps % & 

Other M.P. Data Transformers in locked yard are not accessible. 

Co ndition Fair 

Maintenance Comments Some deterioration of Boston Edison Co. 

equipment. 

Switchgear Cabinetrol and Manufacturer G. E. and G&N Switch- 
control panel (MCC) gear Div. 
Identification Trademarks Condition Good 

only 
Main Breaker 600 A V/estinghouse 

Useable Spares or Space s k 

Number of Structures 7 Space for Future Room for 5 more, 

if needed. 

Other Information Remotely controlled automatic 

system not being used. 

Maintenance Comments Very well maintained equipment. Where power 
enters basement wall, water enters pull box when raining, and 
requires cleaning of floor. Corrosion has set in. 



F-l 



1D PENDIX G 

HEADWORKS INVENTORY 

NOTE : This appendix to Techni- 
cal Data Vol. 9 has not been 
included on all copies of the 
report due to the nature and 
length of its content. However, 
in order to acquaint the reader 
with its contents the first 
sheet of the inventory is 
enclosed. A copy of the 
inventory is available for 
review at the Metropolitan 
District Commission, 20 Somer- 
set Street, Boston, Mass. 



SECTION 1 
CHELSEA CREEK HEADWORKS 



Chelsea Creek Headworks 
Power Distribution System 



Location First Floor (Elev. 117.12') 

Power Supply To common access transformer vault. 

From Boston Edison Company Vo ltage ^160 Phase 3 
Power Transformer Quantity Voltage KVA 



Manufac 


turer 


Other N 


.P. 


Data 


Conditio 


on 





Taps 



%Z 



Key could not be located to obtain access. 
No information available 



Maintenance Comments 



Switchgear Distribution 
Switchboard 

Identification None 



Manufacturer Westinghouse 



1000 
1 £Too* 



Main Breaker 

Useable Spares or Spaces 7 



Condition Good 



Date of Mfr 
unknown 



Number of Structures 7 

Other Information Boston Edison Metering on switchboard 

Maintenance Comments 

Several circuit breaker panel sections within this switchboard 
supply all of the building .loads 



G-l 




EXISTING MDC INTERCEPTOR SYSTEM 



OCTOBER, 1975 







w ■ 



m 






/ V 

rEWK^URY : 

if &<*$ 



WgSTFO^Ph 



c 



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BRANCH SEWEP 



o. \ 



"MAYNARt 










HTOS;QN 






J '- - 





: j STONEHAM 
V ' ' EXTENSION SEWER 



STONEHAM 
TRUNK SEWER 




LEXINGTON 



m 



• 



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nSrtTT 
: metro.sewi 



s 






JS RAH C 



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MEDFORD 

BRANCH SEWER 



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SOSTH CHARLES 
RELIEF SEWER 



y 



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BRIGHTON BRANCH SEWER 



^ 




SCALE IN FEET 



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LEGEND 
EXISTING FACILITIES 




INTERCEPTOR 
FORCE MAIN (F.M.) 
PUMPING STATION (PS) 

INVERT ELEVATION 
MDC DATUM) 

INTERCEPTOR SIZE 

MDC SECTION NUMBER 

DRAINAGE DIVIDES 









ID'* 



LOWER BRAINTREE ~"*^t J\ fHlNGHAM F.M. ^>\ PC ~" 
CONNECTING SEWER .AV^jMlfsp-i I ' ^ 






." 



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FIG. 2-2 

COMMONWEALTH OF MASSACHUSETTS 

METROPOLITAN DISTRICT COMMISSION 

EXISTING MDC INTERCEPTOR SYSTEM 



OCTOBER, 1975 



/a 




SERVICE AREAS OF 
MDC PUMPING STATIONS 



OCTOBER. 1975 



''*$£?■ ft 



\AJb$LE : T.ok ! ' 






if 




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mAh\\To> 






River 

J 



1 






i 



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SEWER / 




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STONEHAM 
EXTENSION SEWER 



STONEHAM 
TRUNK SEWER 



- WAKEFIELD BRANCH SEWER 

.WAKEFIELD BRANCH 
RELIEF SEWER 
wakefJelo TRUNK SEWER 



fer 



ILLE- 



NORTH" "" 
iMETRO.SEWER 



■(OWN ', 



CHELSEA BRANCH SEWER 

REVERE EXTENSION SEWER 



"V 




1TH CHAhLES^S^^^^J 
'RO.SEWER / 'fJK^T^ 



— — -. ~ jfc. NORTH METRO SEWER 

art OP 




WINTHROP TERMINAL FACILITY 
DEER ISLAND WWTP 



MAI 




SCALE IN FEET 




<^ 



§> 








'MARL.BQR^UQ'H 

*w \ n — ' 






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- 



RELIEF SEWER 












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LEGEND 
EXISTING FACILITIES 



INTERCEPTOR 
FORCE MAIN (F.M.) 
PUMPING STATION (PS) 



INVERT ELEVATION 
(MDC DATUM) 

«•«»•■* INTERCEPTOR SIZE 

■130- 

MDC SECTION NUMBER 




□ □ 



DRAINAGE DIVIDES 

SERVICE AREA BOUNDARIES 

SERVICE AREAS OF 

EXISTING PUMPING STATIONS 



{fiver 

»V"'C 









- 



WESTWOOD 
ENSION SEWER 





V V 









NBPONSET V^LEY SEWER \ VVjj^ V j^ 



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FIG. 6-1 

COMMONWEALTH OF MASSACHUSETTS 

METROPOLITAN DISTRICT COMMISSION 

SERVICE AREAS OF 
MDC PUMPING STATIONS 

OCTOBER, 1975 




EXISTING MUNICIPAL SEWER 

© CONSTRUCTION SEQUENCE NUMBER 

L°U ON-GOING PROJECTS 



FIG. 5-1 

COMMONWEALTH OF MASSACHUSETTS 

METROPOLITAN DISTRICT COMMISSION 

INTERCEPTOR RELIEF REQUIREMENTS 

AND EXTENSION SEWERS 

RECOMMENDED PLAN 



c 








"lit. C^ABOsTOWN 

ICH SEWER 

CHARLES RIVER CROSSING 
SOUTH CHARLES 
RELIEF SEWER 

V. WARD STREET H*VDWORKS 



WINTHROP TERMINAL FACILITY 
DEER ISLAND WWTP 



>^ 






,^ 



"* COLUMBUS PARK HEADWORKS 




CALF PASTUBTP.9T 




m 



6000 12000 



SCALE IN FEET 




— — — EXISTING MUNICIPAL SEWER 

©) CONSTRUCTION SEQUENCE NUMBER 

[ojD ON-GOING PROJECTS 

■ PUMPING STATION OR 

WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT 



^k V^ WARD STREET HpftDWORKS 





^§siLuSrv^S 




ili 




■;xv£plr?§ii® 












FIG. 5-1 

COMMONWEALTH OF MASSACHUSETTS 

METROPOLITAN DISTRICT COMMISSION 

INTERCEPTOR RELIEF REQUIREMENTS 

AND EXTENSION SEWERS 

RECOMMENDED PLAN 

OCTOBER, 1975 




FIG. 4-1 

COMMONWEALTH OF MASSACHUSETTS 

METROPOLITAN DISTRICT COMMISSION 

INTERCEPTOR RELIEF REQUIREMENTS 
CONCEPTS 1, 2, 3, 4 

OCTOBER, 1975 



M 



:^: 



r:6iy 










DNEHAM S \ 9^ 

SEWER I ||jl) 

\\\y WAKERjELD TRUNK SEWER 



,rti , 



•T^sf- METRO.SEWER 



CHELSEA BRANCH SEWER 

REVERE EXTENSION SEWER 



*v£ 



® 



SCALE IN FEET 




6000 12000 



'"Gfr. 



>R LE! 




NORTH METRO SEWER 



v*£tI( WINTHROP TERMINAL FACILITY 

"k."* DEER ISLAND WWTP 



CHARLE81?TVER CROSSING 



x&* 



WARD STREET HEftDWORKS 



^ 



S* 



A 



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••■•■v ■■•■ 

1A,RL©QR0U.GH 







\ 

FIG. 4-1 

COMMONWEALTH OF MASSACHUSETTS 

METROPOLITAN DISTRICT COMMISSION 

INTERCEPTOR RELIEF REQUIREMENTS 
CONCEPTS 1, 2, 3, 4 

OCTOBER, 1975